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Flip Charts

All About Minerals Flip Chart Set

Earth Science - Middle School

 
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\|xiFFIFGy00520kzU Copyright © NewPath Learning. All rights reserved. www.newpathlearning.com 34-6821 Minerals Minerals Charts Charts Sturdy, Free-Standing Design, Perfect for Learning Centers! Reverse Side Features Questions, Labeling Exercises, Vocabulary Review & more!
Phone: 800-507-0966 Fax: 800-507-0967 www.newpathlearning.com NewPath Learning® products are developed by teachers using research-based principles and are classroom tested. The company’s product line consists of an array of proprietary curriculum review games, workbooks, posters and other print materials. All products are supplemented with web-based activities, assessments and content to provide an engaging means of educating students on key, curriculum-based topics correlated to applicable state and national education standards. Copyright © 2014 NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Curriculum Mastery® and NewPath Learning® are registered trademarks of NewPath Learning LLC. Science Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts provide comprehensive coverage of key standards-based curriculum in an illustrated format that is visually appealing, engaging and easy to use. Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts can be used with the entire classroom, with small groups or by students working independently. Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart Set features 10 double-sided laminated charts covering grade-level specific curriculum content on one side plus write-on/wipe-off charts on reverse side for student use or for small-group instruction. Built-in sturdy free-standing easel for easy display Spiral bound for ease of use Student Activity Guide Ideal for Learning centers In class instruction for interactive presentations and demonstrations Hands-on student use Stand alone reference for review of key science concepts Teaching resource to supplement any program HOW TO USE Classroom Use Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart can be used to graphically introduce or review a topic of interest. Side 1 of each Flip Chart provides graphical representation of key concepts in a concise, grade appropriate reading level for instructing students. The reverse Side 2 of each Flip Chart allows teachers or students to summarize key concepts and assess their understanding. Note: Be sure to use an appropriate dry-erase marker and to test it on a small section of the chart prior to using it. The Activity Guide included provides a black-line master of each Flip Chart which students can use to fill in before, during, or after instruction. While the activities in the guide can be used in conjunction with the Flip Charts, they can also be used individually for review or as a form of assessment or in conjunction with any other related assignment. Learning Centers Each Flip Chart provides students with a quick illustrated view of science curriculum concepts. Students may use these Flip Charts in small group settings along with the corresponding activity pages contained in the guide to learn or review concepts already covered in class. Students may also use these charts as reference while playing the NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Independent student use Students can use the hands-on Flip Charts to practice and learn independently by first studying Side 1 of the chart and then using Side 2 of the chart or the corresponding graphical activities contained in the Activity Guide. Reference/Teaching resource Curriculum Mastery® Charts are a great visual supplement to any curriculum or they can be used in conjunction with NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Chart # 1: Chart # 2: Chart # 3: Chart # 4: Chart # 5: Chart # 6: Chart # 7: Chart # 8: Chart # 9: Chart #10: What is a Mineral? Minerals vs. Rocks Properties of Minerals Crystals & Special Properties How do Minerals Form? Mineral Resources Mining & the Environment Use of Minerals Identifying Minerals Vocabulary
What is a Mineral? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4651 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. 1 3 Coal made from the remains of living organisms Quartz inorganic mineral Coal rock made from remains of living organisms Minerals 1 - naturally occurring 2 - inorganic (nonliving) 3 - solid substance solid 4 hematite feldspar quartz halite fluorite A rock is not a mineral. It is composed of one or more minerals and sometimes contains organic material. Coal is considered a rock. A substance must meet four criteria to be classified as a mineral. Second, minerals are inorganic, nonliving substances. They cannot be made up of any material that was once a living organism. solid gold Third, a mineral must be a solid substance. It has volume and shape, and is not a liquid or gas. And fourth, every mineral has a specific crystal structure with particles arranged in a repeated pattern. A mineral’s atomic structure determines its crystal structure. First, it must be naturally occurring. Minerals are always formed by natural processes, such as cooling molten lava. 2
Pause and Review What are the four criteria a substance must meet to be classified as a mineral? MINERALS Criteria Description Example 1. 2. 3. 4. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4651 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. What is a Mineral?
Minerals vs. Rocks What are Minerals? A mineral, by definition, must meet four criteria. It must be a naturally occurring, solid substance that has an internal crystal structure and is formed by inorganic processes. Rocks are made up of minerals. ground water ocean shoreline mountains lake magma vents Minerals form in a wide variety of geologic environments. Some minerals, such as talc, form as a result of intense heat and pressure created during metamorphism. Ground water that is heated by magma causes elements and compounds to dissolve into a hot liquid. When the liquid cools, minerals such as gold and copper are formed. One group of minerals forms when ocean water evaporates. The most common mineral to form this way is halite (rock salt). halite quartz talc gold What are Rocks? Rocks are solid, naturally occurring substances composed of one or more minerals and other matter, including inorganic material. Rocks are classified into three groups according to how they were formed. Igneous rocks form when liquid rock cools and hardens. Liquid rock that is under the crust is called magma. When it pours out onto the Earth’s surface, it is then called lava. Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have changed as the result of intense heat and pressure deep in the Earth’s crust. Sedimentary rocks are rocks that have been placed in layers by weathering or erosion. Over millions of years, these layers are compressed and cemented together. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4652 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources.
Pause and Review Create a concept map to illustrate the difference between rocks and minerals. What are they made of? How are they formed? Minerals vs. Rocks © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4652 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. formed by _____________ ____________________ ____________________ formed by _____________ ____________________ ____________________ formed by _____________ ____________________ ____________________ Rocks are composed of must meet four criteria classified into
Properties of Minerals A mineral that breaks apart in flat planes has cleavage. A mineral that breaks unevenly along irregular surfaces has fracture. There are several different types of fracture. Mineral Properties Mineral Properties color streak luster specic gravity hardness crystal system cleavage/ fracture special properties special properties cleavage fracture crystal system hardness color streak luster specic gravity © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4653 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. mica cleavage quartz fracture Physical Properties Minerals are identified by their physical properties. There are a number of properties that can be tested, such as hardness and streak color. An unknown mineral can be identified by its physical properties. A mineral’s hardness is determined by comparing it to the minerals in the Mohs Hardness Scale. 2 2-3 3 gypsum halite calcite The color of a mineral is easy to see but is not always the best way to identify it. Many minerals are the same color, and some minerals can change color if they are exposed to different conditions, like air or water. Streak is the color of a mineral when it is crushed to a powder. If you rub a mineral across a piece of unglazed porcelain, a streak is seen. Minerals harder than a 7 on the Mohs Hardness Scale do not leave a streak. Luster is a description of how light reflects off of a mineral. Some of the luster descriptions are metallic, glassy, greasy and dull. silver metallic glassy greasy dull quartz sulfur barite Luster density = mass volume mass volume displaced Specific gravity is a measure of a mineral’s density. Density is determined by comparing the mass of a mineral to the mass of an equal volume of water. Volume is measured by dropping a mineral sample in water and looking at the amount of displacement. A scale is used to measure mass. streak color streak plate fluorite - color varies
Pause and Review List and describe the mineral properties and also how you would test for each of them. Properties of Minerals © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4653 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Mineral Properties ___________________________ _________________________ ____________________________ ___________________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ ___________________________ _________________________ _______________________ __________________________________ _______________________ _____________________ ____________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________ _________________________ _______________________ _____________________________ ___________________________________ ______________________ ____________________________ ___________________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _______________________________
Crystals & Sp ecial Properties uorescent calcite magnetic magnetite calcite magnetite uorescent calcite magnetic magnetite calcite magnetite uorescent calcite magnetic magnetite calcite magnetite Special Properties Some minerals have unique physical properties. For example, calcite glows under ultraviolet light, and magnetite is magnetic. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4654 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Crystal Systems One of the physical properties that is used to identify minerals is their crystal structure. Every mineral forms a specific crystal shape and belongs to one of several different crystal systems. Each system is determined by the internal arrangement of the molecules in a mineral. Crystal shape cubic hexagonal orthorhombic monoclinic triclinic Crystal shape cubic hexagonal orthorhombic monoclinic triclinic Crystal shape cubic hexagonal orthorhombic monoclinic triclinic Crystal shape cubic hexagonal orthorhombic monoclinic triclinic Crystal shape cubic hexagonal orthorhombic monoclinic triclinic Crystal Shapes cubic orthorhombic monoclinic calcite magnetite calcite fluorescent magnetite magnetic triclinic hexagonal
Pause and Review Identify the crystal shapes. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4654 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Crystals & Sp ecial Properties Crystal shape cubic hexagonal orthorhombic monoclinic triclinic Crystal shape cubic hexagonal orthorhombic monoclinic triclinic Crystal shape cubic hexagonal orthorhombic monoclinic triclinic Crystal shape cubic hexagonal orthorhombic monoclinic triclinic Crystal shape cubic hexagonal orthorhombic monoclinic triclinic Research and describe special properties of several minerals. Mineral: ___________________________________________ Special property: ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Mineral: ___________________________________________ Special property: ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Mineral: ___________________________________________ Special property: ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
ground water ocean shoreline mountains lake magma vents How do Minerals Form? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4655 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Minerals form in a wide variety of geologic environments. Metamorphism Some minerals form as a result of intense heat and pressure created during metamorphism. Talc is an example of a metamorphic mineral. Crystallization Other minerals crystallize from magma as it cools. Examples include tourmaline, feldspar and quartz. One group of minerals forms when ocean water evaporates. The most common mineral to form this way is halite (rock salt). Crystallization Pressure Heat Metamorphism quartz magma cools - minerals form magma feldspar gold Ground water that is heated by magma causes elements and compounds to dissolve into a hot liquid. When the liquid cools, minerals such as gold and copper are formed. talc halite
Pause and Review Describe four ways that minerals can form. Name an example of each. How do Minerals Form? ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4655 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources.
Mineral Resources mineral deposits ore deposits (veins) magma chamber © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4656 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Photos courtesy of USGS, BLM and NPS. Ore Mining Rock that contains metals or important minerals is called ore. Large amounts of ore are called ore deposits. Several methods of mining are used to remove rocks and minerals from the ground. When ore is close to the Earth’s surface, strip mining and open pit mining methods are used. Nearly all mineral resources need to be processed after they are mined. A process called smelting mixes the ore with other substances and then melts the mixture to separate the useful minerals and metal. Iron Ore Smelting coke ore coke- limestone- ore mix slag molten iron blast furnace slag ladle hot metal car hot air (blast) stoves gas shaft mine ore bed strip mining open pit mining Shaft mines are dug when the ore deposits are deep below the surface.
Pause and Review Describe three ways that minerals can be extracted from the Earth. Give examples of each. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4656 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Mineral Resources
Mining & th e Environment Mining can create significant environmental problems. It can destroy habitats and produce waste products that pollute the land, water and air. Land reclamation is a top priority of the mining industry today. It involves bringing in new topsoil and planting trees, grasses and other native plants. The Earth’s mineral reserves are sufficient to supply most of our needs, but in many cases recycling previously used materials is more efficient than producing them from ore. mined area reclaimed habitat energy conservation recycled products recycled metal © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4657 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources.
Pause and Review Describe different types of mining and discuss the various problems they may cause for the environment. Mining & th e Environment ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4657 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources.
+ + ALKALINE BA TTER Y + + + uorite talc calcite gold sulfur galena gypsum magnetite quartz Use of Minerals A television alone contains 35 or more mineral- made materials. For example, quartz is used for making glass and silicon chips, while copper is made into wires. Gemstones are minerals that are valued for their rarity and beauty. They are primarily used for jewelry and decoration, but some are useful in making mechanical parts. copper gold/topaz hematite azurite malachite diamond - drill bit quartz quartz Minerals are found in products we use every day. In our modern civilization, materials made from minerals are of major industrial and economic importance. bauxite (aluminum) siding/nails quartz windows slate roof gypsum wallboard copper pipes/wiring talc paint gypsum cement iron (steel) appliances/supports Think about the materials involved in building a new home. Gypsum is used to make wallboard and cement. Steel is an iron mixture used for framework, furniture and appliances. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4658 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources.
Pause and Review Match each of the following minerals to its use: bauxite, copper, diamond, galena, gypsum, magnetite, quarts, sulfur, talc. pipes, wires fertilizer tires cement glass paint ba eries nails jewelry/drill bit + + ALKALIN E BA TTE RY + + + Use of Minerals © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4658 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources.
Identifying Minerals Minerals are found in products we use every day. In our modern civilization, materials made from minerals are of major industrial and economic importance. Mineral Identification Chart name color luster streak hardness acid reaction colorless, green, blue, yellow, white glassy white 5.0 no Apatite deep blue with yellow or brown glassy blue 3.5-4.0 yes Azurite white, red, blue, yellow dull to glassy white 2.5-3.5 no Barite colorless, brown, red, yellow glassy white 3.0 yes Calcite colorless, green, blue, yellow, purple glassy white 4.0 no Fluorite silver gray metallic silver gray 2.5 no Galena gold, yellow metallic gold, yellow 2.5-3.0 no Gold black or deep red metallic or earthy deep red 5.0-6.0 no Hematite dark gray metallic dark gray 6.0 no Magnetite green dull to glassy green 3.5-4.0 no Malachite brassy yellow to dull green metallic to dull green 6.0-6.5 no Pyrite Quartz colorless, purple, pink, yellow, blue glassy none 7.0 no 2 2-3 3 gypsum halite calcite © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4659 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources.
Identifying Minerals Pause and Review Describe each of the minerals listed below: © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4659 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Mineral Identification Chart name color luster streak hardness acid reaction Apatite Azurite Barite Calcite Fluorite Galena Gold Hematite Magnetite Malachite Pyrite Quartz
Key Vocabulary Terms © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4660 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. cleavage the way some minerals break on flat planes crystal a solid substance with molecules arranged in a repeated pattern fracture the way a mineral looks when it breaks along irregular surfaces gemstone a mineral that is often polished and worn in jewelry, valued for its rarity and beauty inorganic a nonliving substance that is not formed from any previously living materials luster a physical property of minerals that describes the way light reflects off of a mineral’s surface metamorphism the geologic processes by which a rock or mineral is turned into another due to intense heat and pressure mineral a solid, inorganic material with a crystal structure that is formed by natural processes Mohs Hardness Scale a scale that ranks ten minerals from softest to hardest mineral deposits ore deposits (veins) magma chamber ore rock that contains metals or minerals that are economically profitable gneiss sandstone granite marble rock a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals that sometimes contains organic materials smelting a process that involves melting ore to separate useful metals and minerals from the other mined elements specific gravity a measure of a mineral’s density; determined by comparing the mass of a mineral to the mass of an equal volume of water streak the color of a mineral when it is crushed to a powder; usually seen by rubbing the mineral specimen on a piece of unglazed porcelain called a streak plate
Key Vocabulary Terms Mapping a Term Define it! Use it in a sentence! Draw it! Provide examples! ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4660 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Term __________________________________________________________
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