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Covalent Bonding

Physical Science - Middle School

 
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Chlorine Cl 2 complete outer shells Covalent Bonding © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4841 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Covalent Bonds Covalent bonding is a type of chemical bonding that occurs between two non-metallic atoms. It is characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms. By sharing electrons, two atoms can mutually complete their valence shells to become more stable. For example, since each chlorine atom has 7 electrons in its outer shell, two chlorine atoms will each share an electron to obtain a complete outer shell and form a stable Cl2 molecule. For every pair of electrons shared between two atoms, a single covalent bond is formed. C O O NN double covalent bond triple covalent bond Carbon Dioxide CO 2 Nitrogen gas N 2 C O O NN NN C O O C O O NN double covalent bond triple covalent bond Carbon Dioxide CO 2 Nitrogen gas N 2 C O O NN NN C O O Atoms can also share two or three pairs of electrons and are named accordingly as double and triple bonds. A single line indicates a bond between two atoms, double lines (=) indicate a double bond and triple lines ( ) represent a triple bond. Nonpolar & Polar Co valent Bonding There are two types of covalent bonding - nonpolar and polar. Nonpolar bonding results when two identical non- metals equally share electrons between them. Diatomic molecules such as O 2 or I 2 form nonpolar covalent bonds where both atoms share the electrons equally. Certain other compounds, such as ethane (C2H6), have both polar and nonpolar bonds. Ethane, has polar bonds between the carbon and hydrogen, and nonpolar bonds between the two carbon atoms. C O O + –– polar covalent CO 2 double bond C O O Carbon Dioxide H H H N + + + NH 3 polar covalent Ammonia N H H H O H H O H + + Hydrogen Oxygen H 2O - water molecule polar covalent H H H O O H H H H H H C C –– + + + + + + Ethane - C 2H6 polar covalent bonds nonpolar bond C C H H H H H H Nonpolar Covalent Bond Polar Covalent Bonds CO 2 NH 3 H 2O Ethane - C 2H6 Polar bonding results when two different non-metals unequally share electrons between them. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, ammonia, and water have polar covalent bonds. double bond
Pause and Review Complete the graphic organizers below. Covalent Bonding © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4841 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Covalent Bonding Types of Covalent Bonds include to become results when results when examples include examples include which results in that occurs by is a type of
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