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Flip Charts

Earth’s Surface Flip Chart Set

Earth Science - Middle School

 
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\|xiFFIFGy00525pzY Copyright © NewPath Learning. All rights reserved. www.newpathlearning.com 34-6826 Earth’s Surface Earth’s Surface Charts Charts Sturdy, Free-Standing Design, Perfect for Learning Centers! Reverse Side Features Questions, Labeling Exercises, Vocabulary Review & more!
Phone: 800-507-0966 Fax: 800-507-0967 www.newpathlearning.com NewPath Learning® products are developed by teachers using research-based principles and are classroom tested. The company’s product line consists of an array of proprietary curriculum review games, workbooks, posters and other print materials. All products are supplemented with web-based activities, assessments and content to provide an engaging means of educating students on key, curriculum-based topics correlated to applicable state and national education standards. Copyright © 2014 NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Curriculum Mastery® and NewPath Learning® are registered trademarks of NewPath Learning LLC. Science Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts provide comprehensive coverage of key standards-based curriculum in an illustrated format that is visually appealing, engaging and easy to use. Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts can be used with the entire classroom, with small groups or by students working independently. Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart Set features 10 double-sided laminated charts covering grade-level specific curriculum content on one side plus write-on/wipe-off charts on reverse side for student use or for small-group instruction. Built-in sturdy free-standing easel for easy display Spiral bound for ease of use Student Activity Guide Ideal for Learning centers In class instruction for interactive presentations and demonstrations Hands-on student use Stand alone reference for review of key science concepts Teaching resource to supplement any program HOW TO USE Classroom Use Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart can be used to graphically introduce or review a topic of interest. Side 1 of each Flip Chart provides graphical representation of key concepts in a concise, grade appropriate reading level for instructing students. The reverse Side 2 of each Flip Chart allows teachers or students to summarize key concepts and assess their understanding. Note: Be sure to use an appropriate dry-erase marker and to test it on a small section of the chart prior to using it. The Activity Guide included provides a black-line master of each Flip Chart which students can use to fill in before, during, or after instruction. While the activities in the guide can be used in conjunction with the Flip Charts, they can also be used individually for review or as a form of assessment or in conjunction with any other related assignment. Learning Centers Each Flip Chart provides students with a quick illustrated view of science curriculum concepts. Students may use these Flip Charts in small group settings along with the corresponding activity pages contained in the guide to learn or review concepts already covered in class. Students may also use these charts as reference while playing the NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Independent student use Students can use the hands-on Flip Charts to practice and learn independently by first studying Side 1 of the chart and then using Side 2 of the chart or the corresponding graphical activities contained in the Activity Guide. Reference/Teaching resource Curriculum Mastery® Charts are a great visual supplement to any curriculum or they can be used in conjunction with NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Chart # 1: Chart # 2: Chart # 3: Chart # 4: Chart # 5: Chart # 6: Chart # 7: Chart # 8: Chart # 9: Chart #10: Weathering & Erosion The Erosion & Deposition Cycle Mechanical Weathering Chemical Weathering Forces of Erosion & Deposition Erosion & Deposition - Water Erosion & Deposition - Glaciers Soil Landforms & Topographic Maps Vocabulary
Weathering & Er osion © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4543 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Forces of weathering and erosion are constantly reshaping the Earth’s surface. Weathering is a group of natural processes that break rock into smaller pieces over time. Erosion occurs when rock and soil are transported. Mechanical Chemical plant growth Mechanical & Ch emical Weathering The two types of weathering are mechanical and chemical. Mechanical weathering is the physical decomposition of rocks. Chemical weathering is the decomposition of rocks by chemical reactions. wind water waves weathering physical decomposition chemical reactions flowing ice gravity How Is Rock Eroded? Rock can be eroded by many forces such as blowing wind, running water, ocean waves, flowing ice and gravity. These forces all contribute to sculpting the Earth’s landscape. Photos courtesy of USFWS, NPS, NASA, & USGS. erosion Mechanical Chemical plant growth
© Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4543 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Pause and Review Identify and describe the type of weathering and erosion seen in each image. Weathering/Erosion: ________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Weathering/Erosion: ________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Weathering/Erosion: ________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Weathering/Erosion: ________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Weathering/Erosion: ________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Weathering & Er osion
The Erosion & Deposition Cy cle © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4544 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. erosion weathering deposition Steps of the Erosion and Deposition Cycle The cycle of erosion and deposition has many steps. First, weathering breaks down rock, and then erosion transports the material. Deposition occurs and sediments begin to accumulate. Over time these sediment layers lithify and become stone. Sediment Deposited in the Ocean Sometimes the erosion and deposition cycle is repeated. Sediment eventually makes its way from the high points of continents, down through rivers, and into oceans. conglomerate shale sandstone weathering erosion deposition compaction lithication conglomerate shale sandstone weathering erosion deposition compaction lithication Some photos courtesy of USFWS.
Pause and Review Complete the table below by filling in specific examples of erosion and deposition for each type of natural force. FORCE PROCESS Glaciers (flowing ice) Wind Ocean Waves Water Gravity Erosion Deposition The Erosion & Deposition Cy cle © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4544 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources.
Mechanical Weathering © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4545 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Some photos courtesy of USGS & NPS. Abrasion & Plant Gr owth There are many examples of mechanical weathering of rocks. Abrasion occurs when one rock grinds against another. A rock can also break when plant roots grow into cracks on its surface. abrasion plant roots Exfoliation & Fr ost Wedging Exfoliation is a repeated cycle during which rocks expand in the daytime heat and contract at night, causing rocks to flake. exfoliation frost wedging abrasion plant roots Frost wedging occurs when cracks fill with water and undergo a repeated cycle of freezing and thawing, causing rocks to crack apart.
Pause and Review Use the terms in the list below to complete the graphic organizer. Terms: exfoliation, oxidation, abrasion, acid rain, frost wedging, ocean waves, wind, acid from tree roots Mechanical Weathering © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4545 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. growing plant roots hyrolysis WEATHERING MECHANICAL CHEMICAL the terms in the list below to fill in the graphic organizer. Then, give a brief description the different soils typical of the environments listed under SOIL. exfoliation, glaciers, abrasion, frost wedging, ocean waves, wind, acid rain, acid tree roots, karst topography hydrolysis growing plant roots Copyright © NewPath Learning. All rights reserved. of Rocks & Soil Formation
Chemical Weathering © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4546 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Some photos courtesy of NPS. What Is Chemical Weathering? Chemical weathering involves the breaking down of rocks by chemical reactions. The three main chemical reactions that decompose rocks are acid reactions, oxidation and hydrolysis. Natural Chemical Weathering Acid-producing lichen and tree roots that eat through rock are natural sources of chemical weathering. Many minerals are also relatively unstable and deteriorate in the presence of water and natural chemicals. acid reaction oxidation hydrolysis limestone cave immersed rocks rust acid reaction oxidation hydrolysis chemical weathering (hydrolysis) granite lichen tree roots clay Chemical Weathering & Pollution Chemical weathering can be caused by pollution. Acid rain, created by the burning of fossil fuels, dissolves some types of rocks such as limestone. effects of acid rain The feldspar found in granite breaks down into clay.
Pause and Review Use the terms in the list below to complete the graphic organizer. Terms: exfoliation, oxidation, abrasion, growing tree roots, acid rain, frost wedging, ocean waves, wind, hydrolysis Chemical Weathering © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4546 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. WEATHERING MECHANICAL CHEMICAL the terms in the list below to fill in the graphic organizer. Then, give a brief description the different soils typical of the environments listed under SOIL. exfoliation, glaciers, abrasion, frost wedging, ocean waves, wind, acid rain, acid tree roots, karst topography acid from tree roots glaciers Copyright © NewPath Learning. All rights reserved. of Rocks & Soil Formation glaciers acid from tree roots
landslide Natural Forces of Erosion and Deposition Many natural forces cause erosion and deposition, including gravity, moving water, glaciers, ocean waves and wind. These forces continuously wear down and build up material on the Earth’s surface. wind gravity waves glaciers water landslide mudow landslide mudow Gravity & Mass Mo vements of Rock Gravity can cause unstable rock material to move suddenly. Landslides and mudflows occur when loose soil and rocks slide down steep slopes. slump slump creep creep Wind Erosion & Deposition Wind causes erosion through deflation, the blowing away of surface materials, and through abrasion, the grinding down of rock by blown particles. Wind also deposits sand into land formations such as sand dunes and loess deposits. Slump is the sudden movement of a single large mass of rock material. Creep is caused by gravity, but is a slow downhill movement of sediment over time. landslide Forces of Erosion & Deposition © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4547 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Photos courtesy of USGS, USFWS, USDA & NPS. mudflow deflation rock erodes over time abrasion slump creep gravity water glaciers waves wind
landslide mudow slump creep Type of Movement: ________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Pause and Review Identify and describe each type of mass movement. Research to find real life examples of each type of occurance. Type of Movement: ________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Type of Movement: ________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Forces of Erosion & Deposition © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4547 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources.
Erosion & Deposition - Water © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4548 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Moving Water Carries Sediment Rivers and streams move across the Earth’s surface and shape the landscape. Flowing water has enough energy to move large amounts of sediment, composed of soil, rock, clay and sand. The amount of sediment that is carried by a river or stream is called its load. gravity weathering deposition load Deltas & Allu vial Fans When a river empties into an ocean or lake, sediments are deposited and a triangular-shaped delta is formed. When water transports sediments from a hilly area to a flat area, the water slows down and sediment forms an alluvial fan. Waves & Ro ck Formations Ocean waves contain energy that breaks down rock and shapes coastlines. Rock formations created by wave erosion include headland cliffs, sea caves, sea arches and sea stacks. Waves & Deposition Waves can also move and deposit rocks, sediment and sand. Beaches are composed of different sources of eroded rock. Barrier spits are created from longshore wave currents, and sandbars are built up offshore by incoming storm waves. headland beach incoming waves erosion erosion Photos courtesy of USGS, USFWS & NASA. alluvial fan Mediterranean Sea delta Nile river sea stack sea arch beach sandbar spit
Pause and Review Moving water can shape the landscape in a variety of ways. Label and describe each type of land formation shown below. Land formation: ___________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Land formation: ___________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Land formation: ___________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Land formation: ___________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Land formation: ___________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Erosion & Deposition - Water © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4548 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources.
Erosion & Deposition - Glaciers © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4549 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Glaciers Shape the Land Glaciers are massive sheets of ice that form over continents and in high altitude mountains. Continental glaciers create flat landscapes while alpine glaciers create rugged, mountain features. Glacial erosion creates many landforms including mountain horns, cirques, aretes and U-shaped valleys. Glacial Drift When a glacier melts, the deposited sediment left behind is called glacial drift. Moraines, drumlins and kettle lakes are landforms created by glacial drift. mountain horn glacial lake cirque arete U-shaped valley arete U-shaped valley glacial ice ow Glaciers move and shape the land by grinding, breaking and transporting rocks. ice ow movement transported rocks cracks form bedrock kettle lake moraine drumlin Photos courtesy of USGS & USFWS.
After melting, sediment left behind is called Pause and Review Complete the concept map for the different forces of erosion and deposition. Erosion & Deposition - Glaciers © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4549 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Glaciers are types include create create creates landforms
Soil © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4550 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Photos courtesy of USGS, USFWS, & NASA. What is soil? Soil is a combination of broken down rock and decomposed organic materials. Geologists study the soil profile, which is a cross section of the soil from the surface down to the bedrock. The soil profile is divided into layers called horizons. Types of Soil Soil is classified according to climate, plant vegetation and soil composition. Different types of soil are found in different climate biomes. Plant vegetation impacts the amount of organic material called humus that is found in topsoil. A horizon Soil prole B horizon C horizon bedrock topsoil with humus subsoil weathered rock unaltered rock rock (sand, silt, clay) organic materials Tundra Taiga Temperate Rainforest Grasslands Temperate Deciduous Forest Savannah Desert Tropical Rainforest Tropical climates Arctic Desert Temperate Forest Temperate Grasslands Tropical climates with lush vegetation often have a thin layer of topsoil because high rainfall washes away humus and minerals in the A horizon. Temperate climates have the most nutrient-rich, productive soils. Moderate rainfall results in abundant plant life, and the soil profile has a thick layer of topsoil with humus. fungi worms decaying maer bacteria Life in the Soil Many organisms live in the soil and contribute to its formation. Burrowing animals help create the soil profile by breaking up rock and other materials. Worms, fungi and bacteria decompose decaying matter. Soil Conservation Soil is a non-renewable resource that can be easily depleted or destroyed. Removal of cover crops like grasses and wildflowers leads to rapid soil erosion. Without cover plants, wind can blow away topsoil and significant flooding can occur. Soil layers are thin in harsh climates such as deserts and arctic regions. burrowing animals
Pause and Review Describe the climate, plant life and soil you would expect in each of these places. Soil © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4550 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. desert temperate grasslands tropical rainforest Climate Soil Plant life
Landforms & Topo graphic Maps plain plateau mountains © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4551 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Photos courtesy of USGS, USFWS, USDA & NPS. Types of Landforms Three major types of landforms are plains, plateaus and mountains. A plain is a large region of nearly flat or gently rolling land with little change in elevation. A plateau is a highly elevated flat region that often contains rivers and streams. Mountains are high elevation landforms with steep slopes. CASCADE RANGE SIE RR A N EV AD A COLORADO PLATEAU OZARK PLATEAU GREAT PLAINS Pacic Ocean Atlantic Ocean Gulf of Mexico CENTRAL LOWLANDS SUPERIOR UPLANDS ADIRONDACK MOUNTAINS GULF COAST PLAIN COLUMBIA PLATEAU SNAKE RIVER PLATEA U GREAT BASIN RO CK Y M O UN TA IN S AP PA LA CH IA N M OU NT AI NS AP PA LA CH IA N PL AT EA U PIE DM ON T PL AT EA U AT LA NT IC CO AS TA L PL AI N CO A ST A L RA N G E Coastal plains Interior plains/lowlands Mountains Plateaus/uplands Basins/mountains RRARR PPPERIO U UP U S RRRRRR ERIORRRR RRRAA R U PLATEAU E TE A E A I ATE A ATEA I EA F N U U S U ST PLA E P UPER N L PP AP PA P A P LA P HII AN M T NT S AI N A TETE AI N PL AAATAA N P ATA N UN CH IA N M OU N E AU TAT What is a Topographic Map? A topographic map provides information about the surface features of a particular area. Topographic maps show natural features such as rivers and mountains as well as human-made features like buildings, roads and bridges. The symbols that represent map features are found in the legend. 13500 13000 12500 12500 12000 11500 11000 11000 10000 11000 10000 10500 9500 10500 8500 13000 14000 primary highway secondary highway trail river stream wetlands bridge contour line - elevation Map Symbols Topographic Map Contour Lines Contour lines on a topographic map connect points of equal elevation. An index contour is a darker, heavier line with a marked elevation. The contour interval is the difference in elevation between two contour lines. The relief is the distance between the highest and lowest elevation points on the map. Contour lines never cross. When the lines are spaced close together, the slope is steep. If they are spread apart, the slope is gentle. Contour lines that cross a valley or stream are V-shaped with the V pointing toward the higher elevation. Tops of hills or depressions are shown as closed circles. 11850 contour interval relief highest lowest index contour contour lines steep slope 12250 12000 11750 11500 11000 11000 11250 11000 10500 10750 10750 11000 12500
Pause and Review Identify the parts of the topographic map and answer the questions below. What do contour lines represent? _______________________________________________ What is the contour interval for this map? _______________________________________ What is the highest elevation on the map? _______________________________________ What is the lowest elevation on the map? ________________________________________ What is the map relief? ________________________________________________________ Landforms & Topo graphic Maps © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4551 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. index contour contour lines highway trail river stream wetlands bridge contour line Map Symbols steep slope 12750 12650 12550 12550 12450 12250 12350 12050 11850 11750 12250 11950 1215 0 12850
Key Vocabulary Terms © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4552 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. abrasion a type of mechanical erosion that occurs when one rock grinds against another acid rain rain that contains more acid than normal and causes chemical weathering alluvial fan a triangular deposit of sediment at the foot of a mountain or hill, where a river or stream empties into a flat, low-lying plain chemical weathering the breaking down of rock by chemical reactions continental glacier a moving mass of ice that forms across large geographic regions near the poles creep the very slow movement of soil and rock due to the pull of gravity deposition the process by which sediment is laid down erosion a process by which weathered rock and soil is transported to a new location exfoliation the repeated cycle of daytime heating and nighttime cooling that causes rocks to flake frost wedging a repeated cycle of freezing and thawing that causes rocks to crack humus the uppermost layer of the soil composed mainly of decomposed biologic material load the amount of sediment and dissolved materials a stream or river can carry mass movement the sudden movement of large masses of rock material; also called mass wasting topographic map a map that provides information about the surface features of a region sediment
Key Vocabulary Terms © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4552 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Mapping a Term Define it! Use it in a sentence! Draw it! Provide examples! ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Term __________________________________________________________
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