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Elements, Mixtures & Compounds

Science, Grade 5

 
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What are elements? Elements are the basic building blocks of matter. Each element is made up of one type of atom which determines its properties. What are atoms? An Atom is the smallest particle or component of an element that still has the same properties of that element. All atoms have a nucleus which usually contains both protons and neutrons. Neutrons have no electrical charge while protons have a positive charge. An atom is identified by its number of protons. For example, oxygen has 8 protons, which means no other atom has 8 protons. Atoms also contain electrons which have a negative charge and move around the nucleus. How are elements grouped? The Periodic Table groups elements in an organized fashion. Each element has its own unique chemical symbol. Elements in each column have similar chemical properties. Elements in each row are arranged according to the number of protons. The number of protons increases from left to right in each row. column row solid liquid gas not found in nature H2O (water) molecule H O H O2 molecule O O State at room temperature H 1 Hydrogen He 2 Helium Ne 10 Neon Ar 18 Argon Kr 36 Krypton Xe 54 Xenon Rn 86 Radon Br Hg 35 Bromine Cl 17 Chlorine F 9 Fluorine O 8 Oxygen N 7 Nitrogen C 6 Carbon B 5 Boron Li 3 Lithium Na 11 Sodium K 19 Potassium Ca 20 Calcium Rb 37 Rubidium Cs 55 Cesium Fr 87 Francium Ra 88 Radium Ac 89 Actinium Rf 104 Rutherfordium Db 105 Dubnium Ce 58 Cerium Th 90 Thorium Pa 91 Protactinium Pr 59 Praseodymium Nd 60 Neodymium U 92 Uranium Np 93 Neptunium Pm 61 Promethium Sm 62 Samarium Pu 94 Plutonium Am 95 Americium Eu 63 Europium Gd 64 Gadolinium Cm 96 Curium Bk 97 Berkelium Tb 65 Terbium Dy 66 Dysprosium Cf 98 Californium Es 99 Einsteinium Ho 67 Holmium Er 68 Erbium Fm 100 Fermium Md 101 Mendelevium Tm 69 Thulium Yb 70 Ytterbium Lu 71 Lutetium No 102 Nobelium Lr 103 Lawrencium Sg 106 Seaborgium Bh 107 Bohrium Hs 108 Hassium Mt 109 Meitnerium 110 Darmstadtium 111 Roentgenium 112 Copernicium Cn 114 Flerovium Fl 116 Livermorium Lv Rg Ds Ba 56 Barium La 57 Lanthanum Hf 72 Hafnium Ta 73 Tantalum W 74 Tungstun Re 75 Rhenium Os 76 Osmium Ir 77 Iridium Pt 78 Platinum Au 79 Gold 80 Mercury Tl 81 Thallium Pb 82 Lead Bi 83 84 Bismuth Po Polonium Sr 38 Strontium Y 39 Yttrium Zr 40 Zirconium Nb 41 Niobium Mo 42 Molybdenum Tc 43 Technetium Ru 44 Ruthenium Rh 45 Rhodium Pd 46 Palladium Ag 47 Silver Cd 48 Cadmium In 49 Indium Sn 50 Tin Sc 21 Scandium Ti 22 Titanium V 23 Vanadium Cr 24 Chromium Mn 25 Manganese Fe 26 Iron Co 27 Cobalt Ni 28 Nickel Cu 29 Copper Zn 30 Zinc Ga 31 Gallium Al 13 Aluminum Mg 12 Magnesium Be 4 Berylium Si 14 Silicon P 15 Phosphorus S 16 Sulfur Se 34 Selenium As 33 Arsenic Ge 32 Germanium Sb 51 Antimony Te 52 Tellurium I 53 Iodine At 85 Astatine Copper is a metal used to make coins. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4507 www.newpathlearning.com Elements, Mixtures & Compounds O 8 Oxygen Element name Symbol Atomic number (number of protons) Periodic Table of the Elements proton neutron electron Oxygen atom model A solution is a type of mixture. Salt dissolved in water is an example of a solution. The salt is the solute, and the water is the solvent. Molecules A molecule is the smallest unit of a substance formed when two or more atoms join together chemically. Many substances occur in nature as molecules and not as single atoms. Examples include oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), and others. Compounds A compound is a substance that contains two or more different elements chemically joined together. Mixtures A mixture is the combination of two or more different materials or substances that do not bond to form a compound. Mixtures are only physically combined and can be separated. An example of a mixture is a bowl with a variety of nuts.
What are elements? What are elements? _______________________________________________________ What are atoms? __________________________________________________________ Describe the following: Nucleus ________________________________________________________________ Protons ________________________________________________________________ Neutrons ________________________________________________________________ Electrons ________________________________________________________________ How are elements grouped? What is the periodic table? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ How are the elements in each column of the periodic table arranged? ___________________________________________________________________________ How are the elements in each row of the periodic table arranged? ___________________________________________________________________________ \|xiBAHBDy01735mzV Key Vocabulary Terms © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4507 www.newpathlearning.com Elements, Mixtures & Compounds column row Periodic Table of the Elements Molecules What is a molecule? _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ What is a compound? _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ What is a mixture? _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Compounds Mixtures Oxygen atom model O 8 Oxygen solid liquid gas not found in nature H O H O O State at room temperature H 1 Hydrogen He 2 Helium Ne 10 Neon Ar 18 Argon Kr 36 Krypton Xe 54 Xenon Rn 86 Radon Br Hg 35 Bromine Cl 17 Chlorine F 9 Fluorine O 8 Oxygen N 7 Nitrogen C 6 Carbon B 5 Boron Li 3 Lithium Na 11 Sodium K 19 Potassium Ca 20 Calcium Rb 37 Rubidium Cs 55 Cesium Fr 87 Francium Ra 88 Radium Ac 89 Actinium Rf 104 Rutherfordium Db 105 Dubnium Ce 58 Cerium Th 90 Thorium Pa 91 Protactinium Pr 59 Praseodymium Nd 60 Neodymium U 92 Uranium Np 93 Neptunium Pm 61 Promethium Sm 62 Samarium Pu 94 Plutonium Am 95 Americium Eu 63 Europium Gd 64 Gadolinium Cm 96 Curium Bk 97 Berkelium Tb 65 Terbium Dy 66 Dysprosium Cf 98 Californium Es 99 Einsteinium Ho 67 Holmium Er 68 Erbium Fm 100 Fermium Md 101 Mendelevium Tm 69 Thulium Yb 70 Ytterbium Lu 71 Lutetium No 102 Nobelium Lr 103 Lawrencium Sg 106 Seaborgium Bh 107 Bohrium Hs 108 Hassium Mt 109 Meitnerium 110 Darmstadtium 111 Roentgenium 112 Copernicium Cn 114 Flerovium Fl 116 Livermorium Lv Rg Ds Ba 56 Barium La 57 Lanthanum Hf 72 Hafnium Ta 73 Tantalum W 74 Tungstun Re 75 Rhenium Os 76 Osmium Ir 77 Iridium Pt 78 Platinum Au 79 Gold 80 Mercury Tl 81 Thallium Pb 82 Lead Bi 83 84 Bismuth Po Polonium Sr 38 Strontium Y 39 Yttrium Zr 40 Zirconium Nb 41 Niobium Mo 42 Molybdenum Tc 43 Technetium Ru 44 Ruthenium Rh 45 Rhodium Pd 46 Palladium Ag 47 Silver Cd 48 Cadmium In 49 Indium Sn 50 Tin Sc 21 Scandium Ti 22 Titanium V 23 Vanadium Cr 24 Chromium Mn 25 Manganese Fe 26 Iron Co 27 Cobalt Ni 28 Nickel Cu 29 Copper Zn 30 Zinc Ga 31 Gallium Al 13 Aluminum Mg 12 Magnesium Be 4 Berylium Si 14 Silicon P 15 Phosphorus S 16 Sulfur Se 34 Selenium As 33 Arsenic Ge 32 Germanium Sb 51 Antimony Te 52 Tellurium I 53 Iodine At 85 Astatine
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