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Exploring Nature: All About Plants

Life Science - Middle School

 
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Copyright © NewPath Learning. All rights reserved. www.newpathlearning.com Charts Charts 34-6304 Exploring Nature Exploring Nature \|xiBAHBDy01407sz\ All About All About Plants Plants Sturdy, Free-Standing Design, Perfect for Learning Centers! Reverse Side Features Questions, Labeling Exercises, Vocabulary Review & more! From Sheri Amsel, Award Winning Naturalist, Author & Illustrator!
Phone: 800-507-0966 Fax: 800-507-0967 www.newpathlearning.com NewPath Learning® products are developed by teachers using research-based principles and are classroom tested. The company’s product line consists of an array of proprietary curriculum review games, workbooks, charts, posters, visual learning guides, interactive whiteboard software and other teaching resources. All products are supplemented with web-based activities, assessments and content to provide an engaging means of educating students on key, curriculum-based topics correlated to applicable state and national education standards. Copyright © 2011 NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Curriculum Mastery® and NewPath Learning® are registered trademarks of NewPath Learning LLC. Science Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts provide comprehensive coverage of key standards-based curriculum in an illustrated format that is visually appealing, engaging and easy to use. Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts can be used with the entire classroom, with small groups or by students working independently. Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart Set features 10 double-sided laminated charts covering grade-level specific curriculum content on one side plus write-on/wipe-off charts on the reverse side for student use or for small-group instruction Built-in sturdy free-standing easel for easy display Spiral-bound for ease of use Activity Guide with black-line masters of the charts for students to fill-in, key vocabulary terms, corresponding quiz questions for each chart, along with answers Ideal for Learning centers In-class instruction for interactive presentations and demonstrations Hands-on student use Stand-alone reference for review of key science concepts Teaching resource to supplement any program HOW TO USE Classroom Use Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart can be used to graphically introduce or review a topic of interest. Side 1 of each Flip Chart provides graphical representation of key concepts in a concise, grade appropriate reading level for instructing students. The reverse Side 2 of each Flip Chart allows teachers or students to fill in the call-outs of key structures and summarize key concepts. Note: Be sure to use an appropriate dry-erase marker and to test it on a small section of the chart prior to using it. The Activity Guide included provides a black-line master of each Flip Chart which students can use to fill in before, during or after instruction. On the reverse side of each black-line master are questions corresponding to each Flip Chart topic which can be used as further review or as a means of assessment. While the activities in the guide can be used in conjunction with the Flip Charts, they can also be used individually for review or as a form of assessment or in conjunction with any other related assignment. Learning Centers Each Flip Chart provides students with a quick illustrated view of grade-appropriate curriculum concepts. Students may use these Flip Charts in small group settings along with the corresponding activity pages contained in the guide to learn or review concepts already covered in class. Students may also use these charts as reference while playing NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Independent Student Use Students can use the hands-on Flip Charts to practice and learn independently by first studying Side 1 of the chart and then using Side 2 of the chart or the corresponding graphical activities contained in the guide to fill in the answers and assess their understanding. Reference/Teaching Resource Curriculum Mastery® Charts are a great visual supplement to any curriculum or they can be used in conjunction with NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Chart # 1: Chart # 2: Chart # 3: Chart # 4: Chart # 5: Chart # 6: Chart # 7: Chart # 8: Chart # 9: Chart #10: The Plant Kingdom Plant Cells & Photosynthesis Plant Reproduction Angiosperms & Gymnosperms Structure & Function of Plants Adaptations for Pollination Adaptations for Spreading Seeds Adaptations - Insectivorous Plants Trees of North America Flowering Plants Exploring Nature EExploring xploring Nature ature
The Plant Kingdom Plants are broken down into two main groups - vascular plants and nonvascular plants. About 80% of all plants are vascular plants with special tissues in their stems to move water up from their roots ( xylem) and nutrients down from their leaves ( phloem). This is a little like the arteries and veins moving blood around in your body to deliver nutrients to your cells. Vascular tissues allow plants to grow to large sizes. Vascular plants are broken down into three groups: 1) Seedless Plants: ferns, horsetails and clubmosses. They reproduce using spores instead of seeds. 2) Plants with Naked Seeds: conifer trees, also called gymnosperms. Their seeds are inside dangling cones. They are not surrounded by a fruit like an apple. These plants are pollinated by the wind. Examples of gymnosperms are pine, fir and spruce trees. 3) Plants with Protected Seeds: grasses, flowering plants and leafy (deciduous) trees, also called angiosperms. Their seeds are protected inside a fruit. They start by growing flowers to attract pollinators, like insects, birds and bats. Once they are pollinated, they grow into seeds surrounded by a fruit. Examples of angiosperms are apple trees, raspberry bushes, sunflowers and grass. Nonvascular plants do not have vascular tissues, so they stay small, collecting water directly from their environment. These plants are mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Mosses are also called bryophytes. They are small, low to the ground plants that grow in clumps in shaded areas and moist habitats. xylem moves water up from the roots phloem moves nutrients down from the leaves moss leaves make nutrients using sunlight the roots bring water up from the soil Vascular Plant Structure Ferns, Horsetails, Clubmosses Liverworts, Mosses Nonvascular Plants Seedless Plants Naked Seeds Protected Seeds Nonflowering Plants Flowering Plants Gymnosperms Angiosperms Vascular Plants
Plants are broken down into two main groups - vascular plants and nonvascular plants. About ______ of all plants are vascular plants with special tissues in their stems to move _________________________ up from their roots (___________________) and nutrients down from their ____________________ (___________________). This is a little like the arteries and veins moving blood around in your body to deliver nutrients to your cells. Vascular tissues allow plants to grow to larger sizes. Vascular plants are broken down into three groups: 1) Seedless Plants: ferns, horsetails and clubmosses. They reproduce using __________________________________ instead of seeds. 2) Plants with Naked Seeds: conifer trees, also called gymnosperms. Their seeds are inside dangling ____________________________. They are not surrounded by a fruit like an apple. These plants are pollinated by the wind. Examples of gymnosperms are pine, fir and spruce trees. 3) Plants with Protected Seeds: grasses, flowering plants, and leafy (deciduous) trees, also called _______________________. Their seeds are protected inside a _______________________. They start by growing flowers to attract pollinators, like ___________________________, birds and bats. Once they are pollinated, they grow into seeds surrounded by a fruit. Examples of angiosperms are apple trees, raspberry bushes, sunflowers and grass. Nonvascular plants do not have _______________________ tissues, so they stay small, collecting water directly from their environment. These plants are ___________________, liverworts and hornworts. Mosses are also called _______________________. They are small, low to the ground plants that grow in clumps in shaded areas and moist habitats. xylem moves water up from the roots phloem moves nutrients down from the leaves leaves make nutrients using sunlight Vascular Plant Structure Ferns, Horsetails, Clubmosses Liverworts, Mosses the roots bring water up from the soil Nonvascular Plants Seedless Plants Naked Seeds Protected Seeds Nonflowering Plants Flowering Plants Gymnosperms Angiosperms Vascular Plants The Plant Kingdom 94-4041 moss
Plants are made up of cells, just like animals, and each cell has tiny working organelles. Each cell has a cell nucleus (1) where the DNA is found with all the plant’s genetic information. They have mitochondria (2) to break down sugars to make ATP, which is used by the cell as energy. They have rough endoplasmic reticulum (3) (or rough ER), which are folded membrane pathways that are spotted with tiny ribosomes (4) where proteins are made. The Golgi apparatus (5) is made up of flat vesicles that package things needing to leave the cell, like hormones. Plant cells have some things animal cells do not, like much larger vacuoles (6) for storing water. They also have a thick cell wall (7) surrounding the cell’s plasma membrane (8). This helps give the plant a more solid form so it can stand upright. Plant cells also have chloroplasts (9), the organelles that contain the green pigment chlorophyll which absorbs light energy from the sun for photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process in which green plants use solar energy to change carbon dioxide ( CO 2) and water into oxygen ( O 2) and a simple sugar called glucose. Glucose is needed for energy, growth and repair. This vital process gives green plants the remarkable ability to fuel all life on Earth while renewing our oxygen supply. Without plants making energy through photosynthesis, life as we know it would not exist. The actual chemical formula of photosynthesis takes six molecules of carbon dioxide and six molecules of water and, using light energy, turns them into one glucose molecule and six molecules of oxygen. Plant Cells & Photosynthesis Photosynthesis: 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2O + Sunlight = C 6H12O6 + 6 O 2 Plant Cell Chloroplast 6 2 8 7 1 5 4 3 9
Plants are made up of cells, just like animals, and each cell has tiny working organelles. Each cell has a _____________ __________________________ (1) where the _________ is found with all the plant’s genetic information. They have __________________________ (2) to break down sugars to make ATP, which is used by the cell as energy. They have rough endoplasmic reticulum (3) (or rough ER), which are folded membrane pathways that are spotted with tiny ____________________________ (4) where ________________________ are made. The ________________ apparatus (5) is made up of flat vesicles that package things needing to leave the cell, like hormones. Plant cells have some things animal cells do not, like much larger __________________________ (6) for storing ____________________. They also have a thick ______________ _____________ (7) surrounding the cell’s _____________________ membrane (8). This helps give the plant a more solid form so it can stand upright. Plant cells also have ___________________________ (9), the organelles that contain the green pigment _______________________________ which absorbs light energy from the sun for photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process where green plants use solar energy to change ______________________ _________________________ ( CO 2) and water into ______________________ ( O 2) and a simple sugar called ________________________. Glucose is needed for energy, growth and repair. Without plants making energy through photosynthesis, life as we know it would not exist. The actual chemical formula of photosynthesis takes six molecules of carbon dioxide and six molecules of __________________________ and, using light energy, turns them into one glucose molecule and six molecules of oxygen. Photosynthesis: 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2O + Sunlight = C 6H12O6 + 6 O 2 Plant Cell Chloroplast Plant Cells & Photosynthesis 6 2 8 7 1 5 4 3 9 94-4042
Plant Reproduction People are attracted to the colors and smells of flowers, but these special traits are really meant to draw in pollinators. Pollinators, like insects, birds and even bats will pollinate flowers, which leads to their fertilization. This is so important that some plants use a lot of energy to make bright, showy flowers. Some flowers even have decorated petals with lines leading insects inside like a road map. Inside the flower are the plant’s reproductive organs. They are divided into male and female parts. The male parts include the stamens (1) made up of several long filaments (2) topped by club- shaped anthers (3). The anthers are covered with tiny pollen grains. When an insect or bird collects nectar inside a flower, it will bump the anthers and the pollen grains will stick to it. Then when it travels to the next flower, it will bring the pollen with it. The female parts of the flower include a long, central tube called the pistil (4). The tip, called the stigma (5), is sticky to collect pollen grains. This is pollination. Once attached, the pollen grains grow down the long, central tube, called the style (6). The ovary (7) at its base contains tiny eggs or ovules (8). When the pollen reaches them, fertilization is complete. Over time the fertilized ovules will grow into seeds. petal stigma (5) style (6) ovary (7) ovule (8) pistil (4) anther (3) filament (2) stem leaf stamen (1) As the seeds develop, the flower dies and the ovary grows a protective fleshy covering. This is the fruit and, like the flower, is meant to attract animals. The animals help spread the plant’s seeds. An example of this is an apple. A raccoon is attracted to a ripe apple and will eat it, seeds and all. Later the raccoon will pass the seeds in its scat in a new location. When the seeds receive rain water and sunlight, they will begin to root and grow a new plant. The plant’s cycle begins again.
________________ People are attracted to the colors and smells of flowers, but these special traits are really meant to draw in pollinators. Pollinators, like insects, birds and even bats will pollinate flowers which leads to their _____________________________. This is so important that some plants use a lot of energy to make bright, showy flowers. Some flowers even have decorated petals with lines leading insects inside like a road map. Inside the flower are the plant’s reproductive organs. They are divided into male and female parts. The male parts include the _________________________ (1) made up of several long _________________________ (2) topped by club-shaped __________________________(3). The anthers are covered with tiny _________________________ _________________________. When an insect or bird collects nectar inside a flower, it will bump the anthers and the pollen grains will stick to it. Then when it travels to the next flower, it will bring the pollen with it. The female parts of the flower include a long, central tube called the __________________________ (4). The tip, called the ____________________________(5), is sticky to collect pollen grains. This is pollination. Once attached, the pollen grains grow down the long, central tube, called the ___________________ (6). The ____________________ (7) at its base contains tiny eggs or _________________________ (8). When the pollen reaches them fertilization is complete. Over time the fertilized ovules will grow into ________________________. As the seeds develop, the flower dies and the ovary grows a protective fleshy covering. This is the fruit and, like the flower, is meant to attract animals. The animals then help spread the plant’s seeds. An example of this is an apple. A raccoon is attracted to a ripe apple and will eat it, seeds and all. Later the raccoon will pass the seeds in its scat in a new location. When the seeds receive rain water and sunlight they will begin to root and grow a new plant. The plant’s cycle begins again. stamen (1) _______________ (3) _______________ (2) pistil (4) ________________ (5) ________________ (6) ________________ (7) ________________ (8) stem leaf 94-4043 Plant Reproduction
Deciduous (leafy) trees are flowering plants in a group called angiosperms. This means “protected seed” because a fruit, like an apple, forms a protective covering for the seeds. This group also includes flowering plants and grasses. When an apple tree or any flowering plant blooms, pollen from the male part of the plant called the stamen is moved by insects, birds or the wind to a female flower part called the pistil. The eggs inside the pistil are fertilized by the sperm inside the pollen, and seeds form surrounded by the fleshy fruit. Angiosperm fruits include apples, raspberries, acorns, maple seeds, wheat seeds and even dandelion seeds attached to fluffy parachutes. A fruit can drop to the ground and the seeds sprout right under the parent plant, or they can be moved by the wind, or animals can eat the fruit and deposit the seeds somewhere else in their scat. This is called seed dispersal. When the seeds find soil, water and sunlight, the life cycle begins again. Coniferous trees are nonflowering plants in a group called gymnosperms. This means “naked seed” because, unlike a flowering plant, the seeds of pine trees are not inside a protective, fleshy fruit like an apple. A pine tree’s seeds are out in the air attached to a pinecone. This helps during pollination when pollen is blown into the pinecone by the wind. Once the pine seeds are fertilized, they will grow and then drop to the ground. An animal, like a squirrel, may take the pinecone apart to eat the seeds. Many seeds will fall to the ground. When the seeds find soil, water and sunlight, the life cycle begins again. wind and insect pollination wind pollination animal seed dispersal animal seed dispersal sprouting seeds begin life cycle again sprouting seeds begin life cycle again Gymnosperm “naked seed” pinecone Angiosperm “protected seed” fruit covering Angiosperms & Gymnosperms
Deciduous (leafy) trees are flowering plants in a group called angiosperms. This means “______________________ _________________” because a fruit, like an apple, forms a protective covering for the seeds. This group also includes flowering plants and _______________________. When an apple tree or any flowering plant blooms, ___________________ from the male part of the plant called the __________________ is moved by insects, birds or the wind to a female flower part called the ___________________. The ______________ inside the pistil are fertilized by the sperm inside the pollen, and _______________________ form surrounded by the fleshy fruit. Angiosperm fruits include apples, raspberries, acorns, maple seeds, wheat seeds and even dandelion seeds attached to fluffy parachutes. A fruit can drop to the ground and the seeds sprout right under the parent plant, or they can be moved by the ________________, or animals can eat the fruit and deposit the seeds somewhere else in their scat. This is called seed __________________________. When the seeds find soil, water and sunlight, the life cycle begins again. Coniferous trees are nonflowering plants in a group called gymnosperms. This means “___________________ _________________” because, unlike a flowering plant, the seeds of pine trees are not inside a protective, fleshy fruit like an apple. A pine tree’s seeds are out in the air attached to a ___________________________________. This helps during pollination when ____________________ is blown into the pinecone by the wind. Once the pine seeds are fertilized, they will grow and then drop to the ground. An animal, like a squirrel, may take the pinecone apart to eat the seeds. Many seeds will fall to the ground. When the seeds find soil, water and sunlight, the life cycle begins again. wind and insect pollination wind pollination animal seed dispersal animal seed dispersal sprouting seeds begin life cycle again sprouting seeds begin life cycle again Gymnosperm “naked seed” pinecone Angiosperm “protected seed” fruit covering 94-4044 Angiosperms & Gymnosperms
5 4 1 8 6 2 6 9 10 11 12 13 14 3 7 Because plants make their own energy using sunlight, water and photosynthesis, they are the base of Earth’s food web supplying energy for all other life. Their energy is passed on to any living thing that eats them, including us. Each part of a plant has its own job to do. A plant’s leaves (1) collect sunlight and perform photosynthesis. Little openings in the leaves, called stomata, collect carbon dioxide from the air and release oxygen. Tiny veins in the leaves spread the nutrients throughout the leaf and down into the stem leading to the rest of the plant. The stem (2) helps support the weight of the plant and all its leaves. Water and minerals are brought up from the roots (3) through the stem, while nutrients made by photosynthesis in the leaves are sent down and all around the plant. The roots also anchor the plant in the ground. Plants make flowers (4) as part of reproduction. Their scent and showy petals attract pollinators like birds and insects who will spread pollen to fertilize them. After a flower is pollinated, the ovules inside are fertilized and grow into seeds (5). The ovary that surrounded the ovules grows into a protective, fleshy fruit (6). In nature, when an animal eats a wild fruit, it often is helping to spread its seeds. If dropped on the ground where it can get water and sunlight, a seed may grow into a new plant. Do you know which parts of plants you eat every day the leaves, flowers, roots, stems, fruits, seeds? Use the chart below to discover from which parts of the plant your favorite foods come from. Keep in mind that the sauce on pizza comes from the fruit of a plant, the tomato. asparagus (1) beans (2) carrots (3) cauliflower (4) corn (5) peas (6) hot peppers (7) lettuce (8) potatoes (9) red pepper (10) scallions (11) tomatoes (12) zucchini (13) mushrooms (14) not a plant at all! (1) leaf (2) stem (3) roots (4) flower (5) seeds (6) fruit Food Parts of the Plant Structure & Function of Plants 4 1 3 5 6 2
4 1 3 5 6 2 5 4 1 8 6 2 6 9 10 11 12 13 14 3 7 Each part of a plant has its own job to do. A plant’s ______________________ (1) collect sunlight and perform photosynthesis. Little openings in the leaves, called _____________________, collect carbon dioxide from the air and release oxygen. The ______________________ (2) helps support the weight of the plant and all its leaves. Water and minerals are brought up from the __________________________ (3) through the stem, while nutrients made by photosynthesis in the leaves are sent down and all around the plant. The roots also anchor the plant in the ground. Plants make ________________________________(4) as part of reproduction. Their scent and showy petals attract pollinators like birds and insects who will spread pollen to fertilize them. After a flower is pollinated, the ovules inside are fertilized and grow into __________________________ (5). The ovary that surrounded the ovules grows into a protective, fleshy _______________________ (6). In nature, when an animal eats a wild fruit, it often is helping to spread its seeds. If dropped on the ground where it can get water and sunlight, each seed may grow into a new plant. ________________ (1) ________________ (2) ________________ (3) ________________ (4) ________________ (5) ________________ (6) ________________ (7) ________________ (8) ________________ (9) ________________ (10) ________________ (11) ________________ (12) ________________ (13) mushrooms (14) not a plant at all! (1) ______________________ (2) ______________________ (3) ______________________ (4) ______________________ (5) ______________________ (6) ______________________ Structure & Function of Plants Food Parts of the Plant 94-4045
Plants make their own food using sunlight through photosynthesis, yet they still depend on the wind and animals to help them reproduce through pollination. Grasses and coniferous trees use the wind (1) for pollination. Yet almost 90% of all plants are pollinated by animals. Some plants are pollinated by birds like the hummingbird (2). These plants often have tubular-shaped flowers, just right for the long thin beak of the hummingbird. A few night-blooming plants are pollinated by bats (3). But by far, more plants are pollinated by insects (4) than anything else. Plants have adapted many traits to attract pollinators. Brightly colored blossoms attract bees, flies, butterflies and moths inside to collect nectar and pollen. Sometimes there are lines on the petals (5) to guide insects down into the blossom or a sweet smell to attract pollinators from a long way off. Insects will move from blossom to blossom, collecting nectar and spreading pollen to other blossoms, aiding the plant in its reproductive cycle. Adaptations for Pollination 4 1 3 5 2
Plants make their own food using sunlight through _______________________________________, yet they still depend on the wind and animals to help them reproduce through _______________________________________. Grasses and coniferous trees use the _____________________ (1) for pollination. Yet almost 90% of all plants are pollinated by animals. Some plants are pollinated by birds like the ___________________________ (2). These plants often have tubular-shaped flowers, just right for the long thin beak of the hummingbird. A few night-blooming plants are pollinated by ___________________ (3). But by far, more plants are pollinated by ___________________________ (4) than anything else. Plants have adapted many traits to attract pollinators. Brightly colored blossoms attract bees, flies, butterflies and moths inside to collect nectar and _____________________. Sometimes there are lines on the ________________________ (5) to guide insects down into the blossom or a sweet smell to attract pollinators from a long way off. Insects will move from blossom to blossom, collecting nectar and spreading pollen to other blossoms, aiding the plant in its reproductive cycle. 4 5 1 3 2 94-4046 Adaptations for Pollination
Even after a plant is pollinated and fertilized, it has not completed its life cycle. It still must spread its seeds out into the world. This is called seed dispersal. Spreading seeds is important for the plant to pass on its own traits, but it is also a challenge. Seeds need sunlight, soil and water to grow, but parent plants that live for more than one season do not want to share their space. So, many plants have adapted seeds that move away from home before they begin to grow. The seeds of the sugar maple and elm tree grow with a flat propeller, called a samara (1). When they fall from the tree, their shape makes them helicopter away. A basswood tree’s seed has a long, flat attached wing that spins away in the wind. Some plants, like fuzzy goatsbeard and dandelions, grow a globe of fluff that breaks off in the wind into a mass of parachutes called achenes (2), each holding one seed. Sometimes seeds burst from a pod (3) like the milkweed, or pull out in the wind like a thistle, and their seeds float away on silken strands. Plants even get animals to carry their seeds by growing fleshy fruits (4) around the seeds, like apples, berries and even acorns. Animals eat the seeds and, after they have gone through their digestive tract, they deposit the seeds in a new location in their scat. This works especially well with animals like squirrels and chipmunks who collect the seeds and hide them for later use by burying them in the ground or under a pile of leaves. This is not only spreading the seeds but getting them planted as well. Whether by wind or by beast, seed dispersal is an important step in a plant’s life cycle. Adaptations for Spreading Seeds 4 1 3 2 4
Even after a plant is pollinated and fertilized, it has not completed its life cycle. It still must _____________________________ its seeds out into the world. This is called seed dispersal. Spreading seeds is important for the plant to pass on its own ______________________________, but it is also a challenge. Seeds need sunlight, soil and __________________________ to grow, but parent plants that live for more than one season do not want to share their space. So, many plants have adapted seeds that move away from home before they begin to grow. The seeds of the sugar maple and elm tree grow with a flat propeller, called a __________________________________(1). When they fall from the tree, their shape makes them helicopter away. Some plants, like fuzzy goatsbeard and dandelions, grow a globe of fluff that breaks off in the wind into a mass of parachutes called ______________________(2), each holding one seed. Sometimes seeds burst from a ________________(3) like the milkweed, or pull out in the wind like a thistle, and their seeds float away on silken strands. Plants even get animals to carry off their seeds by growing fleshy _________________________(4) around the seeds, like apples, berries and even acorns. Animals eat the seeds and, after they have gone through their digestive tract, they deposit the seeds in a new location in their scat. This works especially well with animals like squirrels and chipmunks who collect the seeds and hide them for later use by burying them in the ground or under a pile of leaves. This is not only spreading the seeds, but getting them planted as well. Whether by _______________________ or by beast, seed dispersal is an important step in a plant’s life cycle. 4 4 1 3 2 94-4047 Adaptations for Spreading Seeds
Even though plants can make their own food using photosynthesis, if they grow in areas like bogs with poor soil and few mineral nutrients, they may still struggle to survive. Some plants have adaptated by becoming insectivorous. This