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Flip Charts

Exploring Nature: Biomes

Life Science - Middle School

 
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Copyright © NewPath Learning. All rights reserved. www.newpathlearning.com Charts Charts 34-6301 Biomes Biomes Exploring Nature Exploring Nature Sturdy, Free-Standing Design, Perfect for Learning Centers! Reverse Side Features Questions, Labeling Exercises, Vocabulary Review & more! From Sheri Amsel, Award Winning Naturalist, Author & Illustrator!
Phone: 800-507-0966 Fax: 800-507-0967 www.newpathlearning.com NewPath Learning® products are developed by teachers using research-based principles and are classroom tested. The company’s product line consists of an array of proprietary curriculum review games, workbooks, charts, posters, visual learning guides, interactive whiteboard software and other teaching resources. All products are supplemented with web-based activities, assessments and content to provide an engaging means of educating students on key, curriculum-based topics correlated to applicable state and national education standards. Copyright © 2011 NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Curriculum Mastery® and NewPath Learning® are registered trademarks of NewPath Learning LLC. Science Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts provide comprehensive coverage of key standards-based curriculum in an illustrated format that is visually appealing, engaging and easy to use. Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts can be used with the entire classroom, with small groups or by students working independently. Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart Set features 10 double-sided laminated charts covering grade-level specific curriculum content on one side plus write-on/wipe-off charts on reverse side for student use or for small-group instruction. Built-in sturdy free-standing easel for easy display Spiral bound for ease of use Activity Guide with black-line masters of the charts for students to fill-in, key vocabulary terms, corresponding quiz questions for each chart, along with answers Ideal for Learning centers In class instruction for interactive presentations and demonstrations Hands-on student use Stand alone reference for review of key science concepts Teaching resource to supplement any program HOW TO USE Classroom Use Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart can be used to graphically introduce or review a topic of interest. Side 1 of each Flip Chart provides graphical representation of key concepts in a concise, grade appropriate reading level for instructing students. The reverse Side 2 of each Flip Chart allows teachers or students to fill in the call-outs of key structures and summarize key concepts. Note: Be sure to use an appropriate dry-erase marker and to test it on a small section of the chart prior to using it. The Activity Guide included provides a black-line master of each Flip Chart which students can use to fill in before, during, or after instruction. On the reverse side of each black-line master are questions corresponding to each Flip Chart topic which can be used as further review or as a means of assessment. While the activities in the guide can be used in conjunction with the Flip Charts, they can also be used individually for review or as a form of assessment or in conjunction with any other related assignment. Learning Centers Each Flip Chart provides students with a quick illustrated view of grade-appropriate curriculum concepts. Students may use these Flip Charts in small group settings along with the corresponding activity pages contained in the guide to learn or review concepts already covered in class. Students may also use these charts as reference while playing the NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Independent student use Students can use the hands-on Flip Charts to practice and learn independently by first studying Side 1 of the chart and then using Side 2 of the chart or the corresponding graphical activities contained in the guide to fill in the answers and assess their understanding. Reference/Teaching resource Curriculum Mastery® Charts are a great visual supplement to any curriculum or they can be used in conjunction with NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Chart # 1: Chart # 2: Chart # 3: Chart # 4: Chart # 5: Chart # 6: Chart # 7: Chart # 8: Chart # 9: Chart #10: Ecosystems & Biomes Amazon Rainforest North American Desert Polar Regions - Arctic Tundra Polar Regions - Antarctica Grasslands - Prairie Grasslands - African Savanna Deciduous Forest Wetlands - Marshes, Swamps & Bogs Wetlands - Lakes & Ponds Exploring Nature EExploring xploring Nature ature
Understanding Ecosystems and Biomes What Makes an Area on Earth Support a Certain Biome? The climate is the main factor affecting where the biomes are located. Specifically, the amount of rainfall and the temperature affect which plants grow in different areas on the planet. In turn, the plant species determine which animals can be supported there. The type of soil affects a biome to a lesser degree, but may still play a role. Study the map to see where the major nine biomes are located on Earth. The biomes can be broken down futher to include twelve types: Arctic Tundra Boreal Forest (Taiga) Temperate Deciduous Forest Temperate Grasslands Dry Woodlands and Shrublands (Chaparral) Desert Tropical Rainforest Tropical Deciduous Forest Tropical Scrubland Tropical Savanna Semidesert/Arid Grassland Polar Ice Mountains (found in each of the above) To understand how rainfall and temperature work together to create a biome, look at the biome location guide. deciduous forest coniferous forest (boreal forest) Polar Region HOT WET Biome Location Guide COLD Subpolar Temperate Tropical chaparral tundra grassland desert scrubland tropical seasonal forest savannah desert DRY rainforest World Biomes arctic chaparral desert forest (boreal) forest (deciduous) grasslands mountains rainforest tundra North America South America Africa Asia Europe Australia Antarctica
94-4011 rainforest deciduous forest tundra coniferous forest (boreal forest) Polar Region HOT WET Understanding Ecosystems and Biomes What Makes an Area on Earth Support a Certain Biome? The climate is the main factor affecting where the biomes are located. Specifically, the amount of ____________________ and the ____________________ affect which plants grow in different areas on the planet. In turn, the plant species determine which ____________________ can be supported there. The type of ________________ affects a biome to a lesser degree, but may still play a role. Study the map to see where the major nine biomes are located on Earth. The biomes can be broken down futher to include twelve types: Arctic _______________ _______________ Forest (Taiga) Temperate _____________________ Forest Temperate Grasslands Dry Woodlands & Shrublands (_______________) Desert Tropical _______________ Tropical Deciduous _______________ Tropical Scrubland Tropical Savanna Semidesert/Arid Grassland Polar Ice _______________ (found in each of the above) To understand how rainfall and temperature work together to create a biome, look at the biome location guide. World Biomes arctic chaparral desert forest (boreal) forest (deciduous) grasslands mountains rainforest tundra North America South America Africa Asia Europe Australia Antarctica Biome Location Guide COLD Subpolar Temperate Tropical chaparral grassland desert scrubland tropical seasonal forest savannah desert DRY
Amazon Rainforest The Amazon is the largest rainforest in the world, once covering half of South America in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Suriname. Hot and moist tropical air clings like a cloud, and smells of rotting leaves and strong, sweet flowers. Plants, like all things here, grow to giant sizes. The kapok tree (1) is 150 feet tall with a huge branching trunk called a buttress to balance it in the shallow rainforest soil. Large blossoms attract morpho (2) and birdwing butterflies (3) and many hummingbirds (4). Rainforests are broken down into four layers. The emergent layer includes the tallest trees which is often more than 200 feet tall and rises above the rest of the forest. Next comes the canopy forming a thick leafy cover to the forest. Below, the understory has shade-loving plants and shrubs, while the dark forest floor is covered in decomposing leaves. EMERGENT LAYER CANOPY UNDERSTORY FOREST FLOOR The rainforest is a loud, busy place with macaws (5), toucans (6) and tamarins (7) calling up in the trees. On the ground, agoutis (8) and tapirs (9) search for food, while flying insects buzz and ants (10) march in long lines. Sloths (11) slowly chew leaves and their fur grows a green bacteria in the wet air which helps them blend in. The jaguar (12) hunts prey on the ground. The harpy eagle (13) hunts from the sky, and the boa constrictor (14) patiently waits for prey to pass underneath. Squirrel and spider monkeys (15-16) feast on insects and fruit, like avocados (17), bananas (18), jackfruit (19) and brazil nuts (20). Sadly, rainforests around the world are quickly disappearing as we clear them for lumber and farmland. 1 2 3 5 19 16 8 6 11 14 7 18 20 9 17 12 15 13 10 4 Sheri Amsel
Amazon Rainforest 94-4012 1 2 3 5 8 6 11 14 7 9 12 13 10 4 A B C D Rainforests are broken down into four layers. The _________________________________ layer (A) includes the tallest trees, which often rises above the rest of the forest. Next comes the _____________________________ (B), forming a thick leafy cover to the forest. Below, the _________________________________ (C) has shade-loving plants and shrubs, while the dark ______________________________ ___________________________ (D) is covered in decomposing leaves. In the canopy, macaws (5), _____________________ (6), and tamarins (7) call. On the ground, agoutis (8) and tapirs (9) search for food, while flying insects buzz and ants (10) march in long lines. _____________________ (11) slowly chew leaves, while their fur is green from bacteria growing in the wet air. The _____________________ (12) hunts prey on the ground, while the harpy _____________________ (13) hunts from the sky, and the _________ constrictor (14) waits for prey to pass underneath. LAYER
Sheri Amsel The Sonoran Desert, in southern California, Arizona, and northwestern Mexico, is a large sandy plain with bleak mountains. Branches of the Colorado River run through it allowing many trees, cacti and shrubs to grow. In Arizona, it is dotted with giant saguaro and barrel cactus. Many animals thrive in the dry landscape. After a rain, the hillsides are bright with the yellow blossoms of palo verde, flowering cacti, yucca and brittlebrush, making the desert seem more like a garden than a desert. Despite the heat and lack of water, many animals thrive in a desert habitat. The tiny kit fox (1) uses its huge ears to cool off, while its sharp hearing helps it hunt for insects, rodents and other small animals. Roadrunners (2) run up to 15 mph eating anything they can catch and beating large prey, like snakes, to death on a rock. A rattlesnake (3) smells the air by flicking its tongue in and out. As pit vipers, they have heat-sensing spots on the sides of their head to find warm-blooded prey. The scorpion (4) eats insects and other invertebrates, like spiders and centipedes, by crushing them with their large pincers and stinging them with their tail stinger which is full of paralyzing venom. Gambel’s quail (5) scratch the ground under cacti looking for seeds or cactus fruit and run along the ground in small coveys. The desert tortoise (6) may be the oldest animal in the desert, roaming the dry landscape eating tough shrubs, grasses and cacti. Kangaroo rats (7) hide by blending into the sandy landscape. When they must escape, they jump fast, in unpredictable ways, while kicking sand behind to blind predators. The desert jackrabbit (8) eats juicy cactus avoiding the sharp spines. Their long ears pick up the slightest sound of danger while helping them keep cool by allowing body heat to escape through their ears’ many blood vessels. A hole in a saguaro cactus helps an elf owl (9) keep cool during the day, while at night it flies out in search of insects to eat. Chuckwallas (10) are often seen basking in the sun as they need to reach at least 100°F (37°C) to be comfortable. When threatened, they hide in tight rock crevices and gulp air to wedge themselves in tightly. The redtailed hawk (11) uses its excellent vision to scan the desert for small rodents to eat, while the turkey vulture (12) uses its amazing sense of smell to find dead animals (carrion) on which to feed. North American Desert 8 4 11 2 6 10 7 1 5 9 12 3
Sheri Amsel 8 4 11 2 6 10 7 1 5 9 12 3 94-4013 The tiny ____________ ____________ (1) uses its huge ears to cool off, while its sharp hearing helps it hunt for insects, rodents and other small animals. ______________________________ (2) run up to 15 mph eating anything they can catch and beating large prey, like snakes, to death on a rock. A ___________________________ (3) smells the air by flicking its tongue in and out. The _____________________________ (4) eats insects and other invertebrates, crushing them with their large pincers and stinging them with their tail stinger which is full of paralyzing venom. Gambel’s _____________________ (5) scratch the ground under cacti looking for seeds or cactus fruit and run along the ground in small coveys. The desert __________________________ (6) may be the oldest animal in the desert, roaming the dry landscape eating tough shrubs, grasses and cacti. _____________________________ _________________ (7) hide by blending into the sandy landscape. When they must escape, they jump fast in unpredictable ways while kicking sand behind to blind predators. The desert _____________________________ (8) eats juicy cactus avoiding the sharp spines. Their long ears pick up the slightest sound of danger while helping them keep cool by allowing body heat to escape through their ears’ many blood vessels. A hole in a saguaro cactus helps an elf ___________ (9) keep cool during the day, while at night it flies out in search of insects to eat. Chuckwallas (10) are often seen basking in the sun. The redtailed __________________ (11) uses its excellent vision to scan the desert for small rodents to eat, while the turkey _________________________ (12) uses its amazing sense of smell to find dead animals (carrion) on which to feed. North American Desert
Polar Regions: Arctic Tundra The arctic is the one continent on Earth that is made up of very little actual land it is mostly frozen ocean. The ice pack of the arctic is about 9 feet thick (3 m). It is a place of extremes. In summer, the ice pack drifts in the ocean under 24-hour daylight, while in winter it freezes solid in 24-hour darkness. The arctic has no mountains, but includes the North Pole, the northernmost point on earth. The highest point is at sea level, an elevation of 0. The part of the arctic that is land includes some northern islands and the northern edges of Europe, Asia, North America and Greenland. These areas are called the arctic tundra. The arctic tundra has no trees, and the ground is frozen almost all year long with permafrost. The top layer of the soil, above the permafrost, does melt in the summer and grows hearty plants in the short 2-month growing season. Because the frozen permafrost sits below the soil, there is no place for melted snow to go; so the arctic tundra stays wet and boggy in the summer months. This makes it a hard place to travel across and a perfect habitat for waterborne insects like mosquitoes. The mosquito season on the tundra may be short, but it is fierce! Considering its fierce climate, it might be surprising that many animals live in the arctic landscape, including the musk ox (1), snow goose (2), caribou (3), lemming (4), arctic fox (5), arctic wolf (6), arctic hare (7), arctic tern (8), ptarmigan (9), polar bear (10), puffins (11), dall sheep (12), and weasel (13). Some animals survive in the arctic by hibernating through the coldest months of winter, but others like the mighty musk ox, just huddle together in the howling wind and scrape through the snow to the grass beneath. In addition to the land dwelling animals, plenty of arctic wildlife are adapted for life in the frigid waters, including clams (14), sockeye salmon (15), arctic grayling (16), harp seals (17), fur seals (18), narwhals (19), beluga whales (20), killer whales (21), walrus (22) and even the vital phytoplankton (23) on which the fish and invertebrates feed. 4 1 3 5 8 9 6 7 10 11 12 19 18 17 16 15 13 21 22 23 14 20 2 Sheri Amsel
94-4014 4 1 3 5 8 9 6 7 10 11 12 19 18 17 16 15 13 21 22 23 14 20 2 Sheri Amsel Considering its fierce climate, it might be surprisng that many animals live in the arctic landscape, including the _______________________ ________ (1), snow _______________________ (2), _______________________ (3), _______________________ (4), arctic _____________ (5), arctic _______________________ (6), arctic hare (7), arctic tern (8), ptarmigan (9), _______________________ _______________________(10), _______________________ (11), dall _______________________ (12) and _______________________ (13). Some animals survive in the arctic by hibernating through the coldest months of winter, but others like the mighty musk ox, just huddle together in the howling wind and scrape through the snow to the grass beneath. In addition to the land dwelling animals, plenty of arctic wildlife are adapted for life in the frigid waters, including _______________________ (14), sockeye _______________________ (15), arctic _______________________ (16), harp _______________________ (17), _______________________ seals (18), _______________________ (19), _______________________ whales (20), _______________________ whales (21), _______________________ (22) and even the vital ____________________________________ (23) on which the fish and invertebrates feed. Polar Regions: Arctic Tundra
Polar Regions: Antarctica Antarctica is the continent found on the most southern part of the earth. It includes the South Pole and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. It is the coldest place on earth with temperatures dipping down below –130° Fahrenheit (–90°C), and the wind along the coast blows fiercely. It is also considered the driest place on earth even though most of it is covered by a sheet of ice a mile and a half thick. There is very little snowfall in Antarctica and most of that is on the coastline, where it can fall very heavily, very quickly. The interior of the continent is really a frozen desert. This is a strange fact considering scientists believe the Antarctic ice sheets hold about 90% of the earth’s fresh water. There are even lakes that have been discovered deep under the ice. It has a mountain range, called the Transantarctic Mountains, that divide the continent into Eastern and Western Antarctica. The tallest mountain in Antarctica is over 16,000 feet tall. There are even a few active volcanoes. Though many people visit Antarctica as tourists and researchers, no humans are native to the continent. Despite its harsh conditions, many animals live and breed in Antarctica. Birds, like the sooty albatross (1), giant petrel (2), kelp gull (3), Antarctic cormorants (4) and, of course, the many species of penguins, all fish in the Antarctic Ocean. The adelie (5), gentoo (6), chinstrap (7), rockhopper (8), macaroni (9), king (10) and emperor penguins (11) breed on the Antarctic continent and the subantarctic islands. At four feet tall and up to 100 pounds, the emperor is the largest penguin. Their breeding season, during the Antarctic winter, is full of dangers. During the bitter cold the males don’t eat for nine weeks while they protect their egg (and the females are off feeding). The males lose 1/3 of their weight as they huddle together to stay warm. After the females come back, they must travel up to 60 miles across the ice pack to open water to find food. Penguins eat fish, squid and krill and can dive deeply in the frigid Antarctic ocean. As they fish, they are hunted themselves by killer whales (12) and the leopard seal (13). Even at 1,000 pounds and 10 feet long, the leopard seal is a fast, agile swimmer and a fierce hunter. Antarctica is also home to weddell (14), crabeater (15) and elephant seals (16), who feast on the rich supply of fish, squid and krill (17). Blue and fin whales (18) also migrate to Antarctica in the warmer months to feed on the tiny krill. As the Earth warms and the ice pack in Antarctica shrinks, some penguin populations may disappear, while others may fill their niche. 13 16 18 17 6 15 14 12 2 8 7 1 5 4 3 9 10 11 Sheri Amsel
94-4015 Sheri Amsel Birds, like the sooty ___________________________ (1), giant ___________________________ (2), kelp ___________________________ (3), Antarctic cormorants (4) and, of course, the many species of penguins, all fish in the Antarctic Ocean. The ___________________________ (5), ___________________________ (6), ___________________________ (7), rockhopper (8), macaroni (9), ___________________________ (10) and ___________________________ penguins (11) breed on the Antarctic continent and the subantarctic islands. At four feet tall and up to 100 pounds, the emperor is the largest penguin. Their breeding season, during the Antarctic winter, is full of dangers. During for the bitter cold the males don’t eat for nine weeks while they protect their egg (and the females are off feeding). The males lose 1/3 of their weight as they huddle together to stay warm. After the females come back, they must travel up to 60 miles across the ice pack to open water to find food. Penguins eat fish, squid and krill and can dive deeply in the frigid Antarctic ocean. As they fish, they are hunted themselves by ___________________________ whales (12) and the leopard ___________________________ (13). Even at 1,000 pounds and 10 feet long, the leopard seal is a fast, agile swimmer and a fierce hunter. Antarctica is also home to weddell (14), crabeater (15) and ___________________________ seals (16), who feast on the rich supply of fish, squid and ___________________________ (17). Blue and fin ___________________________ (18) also migrate to Antarctica in the warmer months to feed on the tiny krill. 13 16 18 17 6 15 14 12 2 8 7 1 5 4 3 9 10 11 Polar Regions: Antarctica
Grasslands: The Prairie The North American prairie once covered more than 200,000 square miles of the western, central U.S. from the Rocky Mountains into northern Canada and Mexico. There were three types of prairies: the easternmost tallgrass prairie growing 6-foot-tall grass, the shortgrass prairie (1) found in the driest part of the plain on the western edge against the Rocky Mountains growing only a foot tall, and the mixed grass prairie found between them. Now only very small amounts of prairie are left. The rest has been plowed under for farms and development. Only about 4% of this once vast prairie has been saved. Less than 200 years ago, giant herds of bison (2) dominated the grasslands. Their numbers were so great that the ground shook as they passed. Sadly, as the railroads spread west, millions of bison were shot for meat, hides and sport. Their numbers fell so quickly that by the end of the 1800s, wild bison were almost extinct. Today pronghorn antelope (3) still graze in small herds among the prairie dog towns that spread out across the remaining grasslands. Food for burrowing owls (4), snakes, and coyotes, the prairie dogs (5) are an important part of the grassland food web. A much rarer grassland sight, a male prairie chicken (6) finds a raised area at sunrise. He does an odd courtship dance, while clucking and filling his bright orange air sacs to show off for females. Rattlesnakes (7) feast on insects and rodents and sleep away the winter in a prairie dog den. Coyotes (8) eat anything they can find including animals killed by winter cold and snow. The jackrabbits (9) are made for life on the grassy plain. Long ears allow them to hear danger from far away, and in a flash they can speed away covering 10 feet with each jump. But of all the animals on the prairie, the most hardy and abundant will always be the prairie grasshopper (10). In a year when there is a grasshopper outbreak, they are blamed for millions of dollars in crop losses. 4 1 2 3 5 8 9 6 7 10 Sheri Amsel
94-4016 4 1 2 3 5 8 9 6 7 10 Sheri Amsel Less than 200 years ago, giant herds of __________________________ (2) dominated the grasslands. Sadly, as the railroads spread west, millions were shot for meat, hides and sport. Their numbers fell so quickly that by the end of the 1800s, wild bison were almost extinct. Today pronghorn __________________________ (3) still graze in small herds among the prairie dog towns that spread out across the remaining grasslands. Food for burrowing ________________ (4), snakes, and coyotes, the __________________________ _______________ (5) are an important part of the grassland food web. A much rarer grassland sight, a male prairie __________________________ (6) finds a raised area at sunrise. Then he does an odd courtship dance, while clucking and filling his bright orange air sacs to show off for females. __________________________ (7) feast on insects and rodents and sleep away the winter in a prairie dog den. __________________________ (8) eat anything they can find including animals killed by winter cold and snow. The __________________________ (9) are made for life on the grassy plain. Long ears allow them to hear danger from far off, and in a flash they can speed away covering 10 feet with each jump. But of all the animals on the prairie, the most hardy and abundant will always be the prairie __________________________ (10). Grasslands: The Prairie
Grasslands: African Savannah The African grasslands, both veldt and savannah, make up the central part of Africa in a band across the continent and down the middle into South Africa. Some of the countries with savannah are Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Botswana and South Africa. These grasslands range from desert grass plains to those of trees and bushes. The veldt, typical of the interior of South Africa, is a vast area of treeless grassland. Together, this open country is home to many of the world’s largest land animals which often travel together in large herds. The more there are to watch for predators the better. That is why it is not unusual to see herds of ostriches, zebras, gazelles and wildebeests traveling together. 1. Lions live in large family groups called prides. Every pride has two males and many related females with young. The females stay together for life. The males compete with each other for control of the pride. Once a male gets too old to fight for his pride, he loses it to a younger, stronger male. This keeps the more fit males as fathers to the new young. Members of the pride work together to scare a herd of animals, while a lioness hides in the tall grass to ambush a passing zebra or gazelle. When the prey animal is dead, the lions take turns feeding and guarding it, while the others rest or go to drink. 2. The cheetah is the fastest land animal on Earth. While hunting, it can run 70 mph for a short time. When not hunting, they often view the vast plain from the branches of an acacia tree. 3. Traveling in large herds across the African grasslands, wildebeest escape predators by running up to 50 mph. 4. The ostrich, at eight feet tall and weighing more than 200 pounds, is the largest living bird. It has good eyesight, which gives it a great advantage in seeing predators from far away. The ostrich cannot fly, but if it spots danger, it runs. If attacked, an ostrich has a powerful kick. They can live up to 70 years. 5. The secretary bird, named for its black-and-white suit and quill-like head feathers, hunts on the ground for mice and snakes to eat. 6. Zebras migrate after food and water. They have a barking whinny when predators are near and even post a lookout at night while others sleep. Males compete for mares by fiercely kicking and biting. 7. From above, the harrier eagle circles, scanning the hot African plain for a meal. 6 2 7 1 5 4 3 Sheri Amsel
___________________ (1) live in large family groups called prides. Every pride has two males and many related females with young. The females stay together for life. The males compete with each other for control of the pride. Once a male gets too old to fight for his pride, he loses it to a younger, stronger male. This keeps the more fit males as fathers to the new young. Members of the pride work together to scare a herd of animals, while a lioness hides in the tall grass to ambush a passing zebra or gazelle. When the prey animal is dead, the lions take turns feeding and guarding, it while the others rest or go to drink. The __________________________ (2) is the fastest land animal on Earth. While hunting, it can run 70 mph for a short time. When not hunting they often view the vast plain from the branches of an acacia tree. Traveling in large herds across the African grasslands, ________________________________ (3)