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Gene Technology

Life Science - Middle School

 
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Gene Technology Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Using PCR, minute amounts of DNA can be replicated very rapidly producing enough DNA to easily detect, study and use in a variety of applications. PCR has become an essential tool in crime investigations and diagnosing genetic diseases. Producing a Vaccine Using genetic engineering techniques, vaccines can be developed by inserting genes from disease-causing microbes into harmless bacteria or viruses. Once these modified harmless microbes are injected into the body, they stimulate the production of disease-attacking antibodies. T T C G G T A A C G G DNA Fingerprinting Each person has a unique set of DNA. Because of this uniqueness, it can be used to produce a genetic fingerprint known as DNA fingerprinting. It is a method used by scientists to solve crimes, determine familial relationships or to track hereditary diseases. 1. DNA is extracted from the cell. 2. The extracted DNA is cut into smaller pieces with special enzymes. 3. The DNA pieces are placed on a gel that uses electric current to push them through the gel and separate them according to size. The larger DNA pieces remain closer to the top, while the smaller ones move towards the bottom. 4. The separated DNA pieces on the gel are then stained to reveal their unique banded pattern known as a DNA fingerprint. gel (stained) electrophoresis system DNA added A person injected with the harmless virus containing the gene for the antigen produces antibodies against it. www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4639 Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is used to produce a variety of medicines and create crop plants that produce more food and resist pests. Moving a gene from the chromosome of one organism to another DNA 2 copies 4 copies 8 copies 16 copies DNA strand pancreas Bacteria cells insulin gene gene for antigen Pathogen (disease-causing microbe) chromosome DNA containing the desired gene is extracted from a pancreas cell. Enzymes insert the desired gene into DNA vector. Recombinant DNA molecule is inserted back into bacteria cells. Genetically engineered bacteria multiply and express the insulin gene to produce insulin. DNA (plasmid) vector extracted from a bacterium The gene is inserted into a harmless virus.
\|xiBAHBDy01748mzV www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4639 Gene Technology Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is used ___________________________ ____________________________________________________. Moving a gene from the chromosome of one organism to another Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Using PCR, minute amounts of __________ can be replicated very rapidly producing enough DNA to easily detect, study and use in a variety of applications. PCR has become an essential tool in ______________________________________________________. Producing a Vaccine Using genetic engineering techniques, vaccines can be developed by ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________. T T C G G A person injected with the harmless virus containing the gene for the _______________ produces ____________ against it. 2 copies 4 copies 8 copies 16 copies DNA strand pancreas Bacteria cells insulin gene chromosome DNA containing the desired _____________ is extracted from a pancreas cell. _____________ insert the desired gene into DNA vector. ______________ DNA molecule is inserted back into bacteria cells. Genetically engineered bacteria multiply and express the ___________ ___________ to produce ______________ . DNA (plasmid) vector extracted from a bacterium The __________ is inserted into a harmless virus. DNA Fingerprinting Each person has a unique set of _______. As a result of this uniqueness, it can be used to produce a genetic fingerprint known as ______________ _____________________. It is a method used by scientists to ________________________________________________ _______________________________________. 1. 2. 3. 4. ________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ______________________________ ___________________________ DNA added Key Vocabulary Terms antibodies electrophoresis antigen genetic engineering chromosome pathogen DNA fingerprint polymerase chain reaction DNA plasmid recombinant DNA
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