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Landforms, Rocks & Soil

Science, Grade 5

 
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Weathering, Erosion & De position METAMORPHIC SEDIMENTARY IGNEOUS heat & pressure weathering & er osion melting The Rock Cycle The rock cycle is a combination of how rocks are made, erode, break apart and change from one type of rock to another. Sedimentary rocks form when layers of rock particles settle on top of each other and then harden together. Metamorphic rocks form when solid rocks are pressed together and heated to very high temperatures. Igneous rocks form when melted rock cools down and then hardens again. Crystals form during the cooling stage. Sedimentary Rocks sandstone halite limestone Metamorphic Rocks marble gneiss quartz pumice obsidian granite Igneous Rocks A volcano is an opening in the Earth’s crust through which lava, ash, and gases erupt when pressure is built up inside the Earth. Soil is the loose material that covers much of the Earth’s surface. It is made up of three main layers: topsoil, subsoil, and bedrock. Types of Rocks Rocks are made up of many tiny pieces of minerals. Minerals are natural, nonliving crystals that make up rocks. Earthquakes & Volcanoes Earthquakes and volcanoes also help create landforms. An earthquake is a sudden shift in the Earth’s crust that causes the ground to shake and vibrate violently. Most earthquakes happen near faults. Faults are fractures or cracks in the Earth’s crust which are caused by the movement or shifting of the Earth’s surface. Landforms are features that make up the Earth’s surface. They include mountains, plateaus, canyons, deltas, hills, valleys, and more. A topographic map shows the elevation of these landforms. Changes on the Earth’s surface are caused in part by weathering and erosion. Erosion is the wearing away of the Earth’s surface by rain, wind, snow, and ice. There are two kinds of erosion: mechanical weathering and chemical weathering. Mechanical weathering takes place when water and ice break down rocks into smaller pieces. During chemical weathering the rocks are broken down by the actions of chemicals in the air or water. seismic waves fault focus magma lava flow cloud of ash cone pipe 00 900 Contours on a topographic map show changes in elevation. physical weathering cracks worn surface This rock shows the effects of chemical weathering. topsoil subsoil bedrock Photos courtesy of USGS & USFWS. erosion Landforms, Rocks & Soil © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4505 www.newpathlearning.com
\|xiBAHBDy01728ozX METAMORPHIC SEDIMENTARY IGNEOUS heat & pressure weathering & er osion melting Weathering, Erosion & De position The Rock Cycle What is the rock cycle? ____________________________ ________________________________________________ Describe the following rock types: Sedimentary rocks _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Metamorphic rocks _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Igneous rocks _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Metamorphic Rocks marble gneiss quartz pumice obsidian granite Igneous Rocks Sedimentary Rocks sandstone halite limestone What are the three main layers of soil? _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Types of Rocks What are rocks? ___________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Earthquakes and Volcanoes Describe the following: Earthquake _________________________________________________ Fault _______________________________________________________ Volcano ____________________________________________________ What are landforms? ______________________ ________________________________________ What does a topographic map show? ________________________________________ ________________________________________ What causes changes on the Earth’s surface? ________________________________________ ________________________________________ 00 1400 900 Photos courtesy of USGS & USFWS. bedrock magma chemical weathering mechanical weathering cone metamorphic cone of ash mineral earthquake pipe elevation sedimentary erosion seismic wave fault subsoil igneous topographic map landform topsoil lava volcano Key Vocabulary Terms Landforms, Rocks & Soil © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4505 www.newpathlearning.com
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