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Flip Charts

Light and Optics Flip Chart Set

Physical Science - Middle School

 
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\|xiFFIFGy00537sz\ Copyright © NewPath Learning. All rights reserved. www.newpathlearning.com 34-6929 Light & Optics Light & Optics Charts Charts Sturdy, Free-Standing Design, Perfect for Learning Centers! Reverse Side Features Questions, Labeling Exercises, Vocabulary Review & more!
Phone: 800-507-0966 Fax: 800-507-0967 www.newpathlearning.com NewPath Learning® products are developed by teachers using research-based principles and are classroom tested. The company’s product line consists of an array of proprietary curriculum review games, workbooks, posters and other print materials. All products are supplemented with web-based activities, assessments and content to provide an engaging means of educating students on key, curriculum-based topics correlated to applicable state and national education standards. Copyright © 2014 NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Curriculum Mastery® and NewPath Learning® are registered trademarks of NewPath Learning LLC. Science Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts provide comprehensive coverage of key standards-based curriculum in an illustrated format that is visually appealing, engaging and easy to use. Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts can be used with the entire classroom, with small groups or by students working independently. Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart Set features 10 double-sided laminated charts covering grade-level specific curriculum content on one side plus write-on/wipe-off charts on reverse side for student use or for small-group instruction. Built-in sturdy free-standing easel for easy display Spiral bound for ease of use Student Activity Guide Ideal for Learning centers In class instruction for interactive presentations and demonstrations Hands-on student use Stand alone reference for review of key science concepts Teaching resource to supplement any program HOW TO USE Classroom Use Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart can be used to graphically introduce or review a topic of interest. Side 1 of each Flip Chart provides graphical representation of key concepts in a concise, grade appropriate reading level for instructing students. The reverse Side 2 of each Flip Chart allows teachers or students to summarize key concepts and assess their understanding. Note: Be sure to use an appropriate dry-erase marker and to test it on a small section of the chart prior to using it. The Activity Guide included provides a black-line master of each Flip Chart which students can use to fill in before, during, or after instruction. While the activities in the guide can be used in conjunction with the Flip Charts, they can also be used individually for review or as a form of assessment or in conjunction with any other related assignment. Learning Centers Each Flip Chart provides students with a quick illustrated view of science curriculum concepts. Students may use these Flip Charts in small group settings along with the corresponding activity pages contained in the guide to learn or review concepts already covered in class. Students may also use these charts as reference while playing the NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Independent student use Students can use the hands-on Flip Charts to practice and learn independently by first studying Side 1 of the chart and then using Side 2 of the chart or the corresponding graphical activities contained in the Activity Guide. Reference/Teaching resource Curriculum Mastery® Charts are a great visual supplement to any curriculum or they can be used in conjunction with NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Chart # 1: Chart # 2: Chart # 3: Chart # 4: Chart # 5: Chart # 6: Chart # 7: Chart # 8: Chart # 9: Chart #10: Introduction to Light The Electromagnetic Spectrum Transmission of Light Light & Color Interactions with Light Reflection & Mirrors Refraction & Lenses Light & the Human Eye Light & Technology Vocabulary
photons Einstein electrons Introduction To Light c (speed of light ) = 300, 000 km/s electrical eld electromagnetic waves magnetic eld c = wavelength (λ) x frequency ( ν) Electromagnetic Waves What surrounds you and bombards you constantly? Most of it is invisible but you can’t imagine living without it. It is electromagnetic radiation, a type of energy commonly known as light. This energy is produced by the vibration of charged particles. 2:13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 + - - + 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 M 2 M 2 C 1 GH I PQR S As charged particles move back and forth, the electric field around them vibrates, creating a vibrating magnetic field. The two vibrating fields, which are at right angles to each other, produce electromagnetic waves. These waves can travel through materials as well as a vacuum. All electromagnetic waves travel at the incredible speed of about 300,000 km/s in a vacuum, often called the speed of light. This speed is equal to the wavelength of light times its frequency and is represented by the equation c = wavelength x frequency. Light: Wave or Particle Most of us think of light as a wave. Waves easily explain interactions such as reflection. However, early in the 20th century, some scientists noticed that light hitting a metal surface can sometimes eject electrons. How can light waves do this? Albert Einstein showed this can only happen if light is made up of tiny particles called photons. Einstein revolutionized physics by describing light as photons. Scientists now believe light exhibits both wave and particle properties. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4476 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources.
Introduction To Light Pause and Review Complete the graphic organizer. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4476 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Electromagnetic Waves produced by known as made up of explain the interaction travel at a speed of represented by the equation
The Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic Spectrum Although every electromagnetic wave travels at the same speed, each can have a different wavelength and frequency. The electromagnetic spectrum organizes types of light by decreasing wavelength and increasing frequency, from left to right. It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, and gamma rays. 2:13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 + - - + 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 longest shortest wa velength low est highest fr equency low est highest ener gy Radio Waves Radio waves range in wavelength from thousands of meters to about 30 cm. In addition to using radio waves to broadcast radio and TV signals, astronomers use radio signals from distant parts of the universe to study the composition of stars and planets. radio waves 2:13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 M 2 M2 C 1 GH I PQR S 2:13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 M 2 M2 C 1 GHI PQR S gamma rays © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4477 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. 1 + - - + 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Microwaves Microwaves have wavelengths from about 30 cm to 1 mm. In addition to cooking our food, microwaves are used by cell phones and GPS devices. Infrared Infrared light has wavelengths in the range of 700 nm and 1mm. Your TV remote uses infrared light to send a signal to change the channel. Infrared cameras and night vision goggles allow you to see infrared light. Warm objects will appear as bright colors. Visible Light Visible light waves have wavelengths in the range of 400 nm to 700 nm. These wavelengths are seen by humans as different colors. The longest wavelength, 700 nm, is seen as red light, while the shortest wavelength of 400 nm is seen as violet light. This range of colors which humans can see is called the visible spectrum. Ultraviolet Light The wavelength of ultraviolet light ranges between 60 nm and 400 nm. A limited amount of ultraviolet light from the Sun reaches Earth. X Rays X-rays have wavelengths ranging from 0.001 nm to 60 nm and can penetrate many types of materials, including your body. Gamma Rays Gamma rays have wavelengths shorter than 0.1 nm but the highest frequency of all electromagnetic waves. Gamma rays can easily pass through most materials. 1 + - - + 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 longest shortest wa velengt h low est highest fr equency low est highest ener gy 2:13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 The energy of electromagnetic waves is related to wavelength and frequency. Energy is directly proportional to frequency and inversely proportional to wavelength. Wave energy increases across the spectrum. Radio waves have the lowest energy while gamma rays have the highest energy. Visible Light
The Electromagnetic Spectrum Pause and Review Fill in the ovals and boxes with labels and/or details that are appropriate. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4477 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Fill in the ovals and boxes with labels and/or details that you think are appropriate. Magnetic Field are part of are part of Electromagnetic Waves Radio Waves Visible Light are made up of are used for are used for are used for are used for are used for which refracts into __________________ __________ __________________ __________ __________________ __________ __________________ __________ __________________ __________ ________________________ ________________ ________________________ ________________ __________________________ _______________________ _____________ __________________ __________ __________________ __________________ __________ __________________ __________________ __________ __________________ __________________ __________ __________________ __________________ __________ __________________ __________________ __________ __________________ __________________ __________ Copyright © NewPath Learning. All rights reserved. Light
Transmission of Light Transmission of Light Why can you see through glass but not wood? Why do you see a blurry image through frosted glass? Frosted glass allows light to be transmitted, however the rays are bent in many directions, causing a blurry image. Materials like this are called translucent. Opaque materials, such as wood, absorb the light so you cannot see through it. Opaque materials absorb or reflect light but do not transmit light. glass wood frosted glass transparent translucent opaque glass wood frosted glass transparent translucent opaque metal reected transmied absorbed glass wood Glass allows most of the light to be transmitted and allows us to see through the glass. These kinds of materials are called transparent. clear glass frosted glass When light strikes the surface of any material, it can be reflected, transmitted, or absorbed. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4478 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources.
transparent translucent opaque Wax Paper c Transmission of Light Pause and Review Draw a line to match each object with the way that it interacts with light. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4478 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources.
Light & Color Color for Opaque Objects Why does an apple look red and a leaf green? When white light strikes the surface of the apple, only red light is reflected. All the other colors are absorbed . Your eyes only see the red light, so you say the apple is red. The leaf appears green because only green light is reflected from the leaf. White objects reflect all the colors of light. Black objects absorb all the colors of light. A black t-shirt gets hot in the Sun because the black material absorbs all the energy of the light which is converted to heat . Transparent or Translucent Objects A color filter is a transparent or translucent material such as the lenses of your sunglasses. An object can appear to be a different color than it actually is if it is viewed through a color filter. For example, a red apple normally appears red because it reflects red light. However, when this red apple is viewed through a green filter , the red light is absorbed and the red apple will now appear black. Its green leaf will still look green because the green light can pass through the lens. red green blue magenta yellow cyan white Additive Color System Subtractive Color System white light yellow cyan magenta yellow cyan magenta red green blue black red green blue magenta yellow cyan white Colors of Pigments The primary colors of pigments are magenta , yellow , and cyan . Any of these two primary pigments can be combined to produce a secondary pigment color. For example, magenta and cyan when combined make blue. However, when the three primary colors are combined in equal amounts, all the colors of light are absorbed resulting in a black pigment. The colors you see on a printed image are produced by combining different color pigments . secondary colors primary colors primary colors secondary colors Visible Light Your eyes are tuned to see a very small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum which scientists call visible light. Visible light waves have wavelengths in the range of 400 nm to 700 nm. These wavelengths are seen by humans as different colors. The longest wavelength, 700 nm, is seen as red light, while the shortest wavelength of 400 nm is seen as violet light. This range of colors which humans can see is called the visible spectrum. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 + - - + 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 radio radio waves waves microwaves X-rays ultraviolet infrared infrare gamma rays 9 8 0 7 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2:13 3 2 78 9 0 + + + - - + 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 700 nm red light 400 nm violet light white light color light dispersion Visible Light © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4479 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Combining Colors of Light Primary colors of light blue , green and red combine to produce white light . Secondary colors of light are produced by combining two different primary colors known as color addition . For example, red and blue combine to produce magenta , red and green produce yellow , while green and blue produce cyan . The colors that you see on your television or computer are produced by color addition . yellow cyan magenta yellow cyan magenta red green blue black
Light & Color 1) What are the three primary colors of pigments? ___________________________________________________________________ 3) What are the three primary colors of light? ___________________________________________________________________ 2) What is the result of mixing three primary colors of pigments? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 4) What is the result of mixing three primary colors of light? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5) Explain why an apple looks red. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Pause and Review Answer the questions below. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4479 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources.
Interactions With Light Reflection of Light A reflection can be sharp and clear, like the reflection from a mirror. This is called regular reflection. At other times the image is fuzzy, like the reflection in moving water. This is called diffuse reflection. diuse reection regular reection diuse reection regular reflection diffuse reflection Refraction of Light Light is refracted, or bent, when it passes from one substance to another. Light travels at about 300,000 km/s. If light travels from air to another material, such as water, the speed of light decreases. As light passes from air to water, instead of continuing in a straight line, the light ray is bent downward, or refracted. This causes an object in water to appear higher and the water to appear shallower than it really is. air speed of light = 300,000 km/s refraction glass air air index of refraction = n air water water Diffraction of Light Light travels in a straight line. Diffraction of light can only be seen when light passes through very small openings. The molecules that make up the atmosphere can sometimes act as these tiny openings. Sunlight behind a cloud is diffracted by the air molecules in the cloud, and produces a halo around the cloud. Polarized Light Light from most sources, such as the Sun or a lamp, travels outward in all directions. Light that travels in all directions is called incoherent light. Light that travels in only one direction is called coherent or polarized light. A special filter can be used to polarize light, which only allows light traveling in one direction to pass through. This is how polarizing sunglasses reduce the amount of light you see on a sunny day. A laser produces a special kind of polarized light that has high energy. incoherent light polarizing filter polarized light © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4480 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. In a regular reflection, parallel light rays hit a smooth surface and are all reflected at the same angle. While in a diffuse reflection the light rays are reflected in different angles. A material’s index of refraction, represented by n, is a measure of how much light bends when it enters that material. The higher the index of refraction the more light bends. air molecules
Description Interaction Reection Refraction Diraction Polarization Examples Pause and Review Fill in the table. Describe each interaction and give a real life example of each. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4480 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Interactions With Light
Reflection & Mirr ors Plane Mirrors A plane mirror is typically formed from a smooth glass surface with a silver painted back. When you look in a plane mirror, the image you see is a virtual image. Virtual images don’t exist unless someone is there to see them. In a plane mirror, your image appears to be behind the mirror but it is not actually there. The virtual image formed by a plane mirror is upright, the same size as the object, but reversed left to right. focal point f front of mirror back of mirror real image object optical axis concave mirror focal length image distance object distance Concave Mirrors A concave mirror has a surface that curves inward. Two kinds of images can be formed when light reflects off a concave mirror. If the object is farther away from the mirror than the focal point, a real image is produced. The image can be projected on a screen. The real image is upside down and can be smaller or larger than the object. A virtual image is formed when the object is between the focal point and the mirror. The rays of light never actually meet, but appear to meet behind the mirror. The virtual image is upright and larger than the object. When the object is at the focal point, no image is seen. Convex Mirrors A convex mirror has a surface that curves outward. The rays reflected from a convex mirror will never meet. The reflected rays appear to meet behind the mirror, producing a virtual image. The image is upright and smaller than the object. Convex mirrors are useful because they allow you to see a larger field of view. f optical axis front of mirror back of mirror focal point virtual image convex mirror © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4481 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Ray Diagram of a Mirror A ray diagram is used to locate an image. A line is drawn from the top of the hammer to the mirror, parallel to the optical axis. The reflected ray is drawn from the mirror through the focal point. Another ray is drawn from the top of the hammer, through the focal point, to the mirror. The reflected ray is drawn from the mirror and is parallel to the optical axis. The lines will meet at a point showing the location of the image. Curved Mirrors Curved mirrors have an optical axis. The optical axis is an imaginary line that divides the mirror in half. The point on the optical axis where distant light rays meet when reflected, is called the focal point. The distance from the focal point to the mirror is called the focal length, f. The distance from the object to the mirror is the object distance. The distance from the image to the mirror is the image distance. virtual image plane mirror object back (silver) front (glass) focal point f front of mirror back of mirror real image object optical axis concave mirror focal point f front of mirror back of mirror virtual image object optical axis f optical axis front of mirror back of mirror focal point virtual image object convex mirror
Fill in the chart below with real, virtual or both. Type of mirror Type of image plane concave convex Complete the ray diagram. Choose the correct terms from the following list: concave mirror, convex mirror, focal point, optical axis, real image . front of mirror back of mirror f object Pause and Review Fill in the chart below with real, virtual or both. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4481 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Reflection & Mirr ors
Refraction & Lenses Lenses A lens is a curved piece of a transparent material such as glass or plastic. A lens is similar to a mirror except light is refracted, not reflected. A lens has an optical axis which divides the lens in half. The point on the optical axis where distant light rays meet when refracted, is called the focal point. The distance from the focal point to the lens is called the focal length, f. There is a focal point on both sides of the lens. mirror lens reected refracted Convex Lenses A convex lens is thicker in the middle and tapers at the ends. A light ray is drawn from the insect’s head, parallel to the optical axis. It is refracted when it meets the lens and continues through the focal point. Another light ray is drawn from the insect’s head through the focal point and is refracted by the lens. The light continues outward, parallel to the optical axis. The two rays meet at a point and form an image. The image is upside down. When the object is beyond the focal point, the image is always real and upside down. real image object (greater than 1 focal length from lens) optical axis optical axis focal point focal point virtual image object focal point focal point (less than 1 focal length from lens) concave lens focal point focal point object virtual image optical axis If you move the object closer to the lens, between the focal point and lens, the image will be virtual and upright. Concave Lenses Concave lenses are thinner at the center than at the edges. A concave lens can only produce virtual images because light passing through the lens will bend away from the optical axis. The image of the insect through the concave lens is virtual and upright. It will seem to appear on the same side of the lens as the object. convex lens concave lens © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4482 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources.
Fill in the chart below with real, virtual or both. Type of lens Type of image concave convex Complete the ray diagram. Choose the correct terms from the following list: concave lens, convex lens, focal point, optical axis, real image. object © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4482 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Refraction & Lenses Pause and Review Fill in the chart below with real, virtual or both.
Light & th e Human Eye The Human Eye Light enters your eye through the cornea and then the pupil. A lens behind the pupil forms an upside down image on the lining of the back of your eyeball, called the retina. The retina is made of two types of specialized cells, rods and cones. Rods respond to light, while cones respond to color. These cells send the image information along the optic nerve to the brain. The brain interprets the information and you see the image. rod cone specialized receptor cells retina light normal too short too long Vision Problems If your eyeball is too long or short, the image on the retina is out of focus. Glasses and contact lenses correct these types of vision problems. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4483 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. specialized receptor cells pupil cornea cornea rod cone optic nerve vision center lens
© Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4483 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Pause and Review Label the images below and indicate which specialized receptor cells respond to light and which respond to color. Light & th e Human Eye
Light & Technology Uses of Light in Technology Telescopes use lenses and mirrors to collect and focus light from distant objects such as planets and stars. There are many types of telescopes that allow us to see into outer space. The simplest telescope, a refracting telescope, uses two lenses. The first lens, the objective, gathers and focuses the light. The second lens, the eyepiece, enlarges the image. Microscopes also use a combination of lenses to magnify objects. An objective lens and an eyepiece lens are used to magnify an object to produce a real and enlarged image. A reflecting telescope includes a mirror to help gather light. virtual enlarged image objective lens light eyepiece real image Optical fibers are used to send information between telephones or computers. Optical fibers are long thin pieces of glass or plastic and are used to transmit light. Light travels along the fiber and only leaves at the other end. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4484 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. refracting reecting objective lens eyepiece lens concave mirror plane mirror refracting reecting objective lens eyepiece lens concave mirror plane mirror refracting telescope reflecting telescope Photos courtesy of NASA
objective lens light eyepiece Pause and Review Identify the parts of the microscope that allow us to see things that are normally invisible to the naked eye. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4484 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Light & Technology Identify the type and parts of the telescopes. refracting reecting objective lens eyepiece lens concave mirror plane mirror refracting reecting objective lens eyepiece lens concave mirror plane mirror Type: Type:
Key Vocabulary Terms © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4485 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. concave lens a lens that is thinner in the center than at the edges front of mirror back of mirror concave mirror a mirror with a surface that curves inward convex lens a lens that is thicker in the center than at the edges front of mirror back of mirror convex mirror a mirror with a surface that curves outward 2:13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 + - - + 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Visible Light electromagnetic spectrum all forms of electromagnetic radiation arranged by increasing frequency focal point focal point the point where light rays meet, or appear to meet, when reflected by a mirror or transmitted by a lens plane mirror a flat mirror that produces a upright, virtual image that is the same size as the object prism a transparent object, often triangular in shape, that breaks white light into its component colors real image object lens real image a copy of an object that exists without an observer, the image can be projected on a screen reflection light that bounces off a surface refraction light rays that bend as they move from one substance to another translucent a material that scatters light as it passes through; images seen through translucent materials may be blurry transparent a material that does not scatter light as it passes through mirror virtual image object virtual image an upright image that does not exist unless seen by an observer, cannot be projected on a screen
Key Vocabulary Terms © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4485 Visit www.newpathlearning.com